October 30, 2020 — Los Angeles, CA
by Holly Huffnagle
According to a new American Jewish Committee (AJC) poll, only 53% of U.S. adults say they are familiar with the term anti-Semitism and know what it means. A stunning 21% say they never heard the word, and 25% have heard it but are unsure what it means.
Given Americans’ lack of awareness and understanding of anti-Semitism, educational initiatives that seek to counter hate and bigotry must include a clear definition of anti-Semitism. The California Ethnic Studies Model Curriculum (ESMC) is one such initiative, mandated by the state legislature in 2016. But the Board of Education (CDE) produced a first draft of the curriculum in the summer of 2019 that did not contain any definition of anti-Semitism, nor a lesson plan on how to recognize and combat it. After protests by the Jewish community and thousands of comments on the draft, the CDE released an updated, revised version in August. A definition of antisemitism still was missing. The only reference to Jews in the current draft curriculum likens Jews to Irish-Americans, asserting that they have gained racial privilege in America.
California has experienced a 72% increase in anti-Semitism over the last three years. Jews are the state’s primary religious hate crime target and third most frequently targeted ethnic group. Students must learn what anti-Semitism is and that it did not end with the Holocaust — the Ethnic Studies Curriculum should finally include it.
Anti-Semitism in California has multiple sources. It comes from far-right white supremacists, as was demonstrated by the fatal attack at a Poway synagogue last year. It’s on the far left, where contemporary manifestations include denying the Jewish people their right to self-determination, such as glorifying terrorists who carry out violent, fatal attacks against Israel. We see anti-Semitic acts from religious extremists and even from segments of minority communities. We see it in the form of Holocaust denial and distortion and conspiracy theories about Jewish “power,” “privilege,” and “control.” We see it especially on the Internet and on social media platforms.
If California educational leaders are serious about combating anti-Semitism and hate, they should include the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) Working Definition of Anti-Semitism in the ESMC. An apolitical body of scholars, policy experts, and researchers from around the world created the original Working Definition in the early 2000s. The IHRA adopted it in 2016.
The Working Definition is simple: “Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.”
This “certain perception” — often connected to conspiracy theories and tropes of power, control, and money — makes anti-Semitism distinct from other forms of hate and bigotry. Anti-Semitism is more than just a hatred of a specified other. It is connected to an alleged evil in the world, which morphs across society and the political spectrum in different ways, making it exceedingly challenging to combat.
Today the IHRA definition is recommended by the European Parliament, European Council, UN Secretary-General, and Secretary-General of the Organization of American States. It has been adopted by almost 30 countries. It is the definition referenced in the U.S. House of Representatives’ Never Again Education Act (H. R. 943), which was co-sponsored by 302 representatives, 45 from California, including Representatives Jackie Speier, Ro Khanna, Ted Lieu, Barbara Lee, Zoe Lofgren, Anna Eshoo, and Adam Schiff.
The State Department under President Obama endorsed this definition. But when the Trump Administration recommended its use in an Executive Order for the U.S. Department of Education, it sparked an outcry by opponents of the president, who asserted that his action would somehow limit freedom of speech, especially around Israel on college campuses. It was disappointing to see such a useful tool fall victim to partisan politics.
Some critics argue the definition will undermine the First Amendment or have a “chilling effect” on free speech and silence all criticism of Israeli policies. But it is intended to define anti-Semitism — not sanction speech. The First Amendment protects all speech, including racist, xenophobic, homophobic, and anti-Semitic speech. Where such intolerance has consequences, as in determining the motivation of hate crimes, it is vital to know what anti-Semitism is. Without understanding new forms of anti-Semitism, such as on the Internet and social media, the “chilling effect” often falls on Jewish students. Jewish students often feel afraid to openly identify as Jewish, given the significant surge in anti-Semitism in schools, including rhetoric denying Israel’s right to exist and other criticisms of the Jewish state that clearly are anti-Semitic.
Governor Gavin Newsom should endorse the IHRA Working Definition of Antisemitism. He would send a powerful message that California cares about protecting its Jewish students and lead by example as other states include ethnic studies in their schools.
The ESMC can be a model for educators across the country. It should teach students civic responsibility and empathy towards others who look and think differently. But it should include Jewish Californians, who have historically faced intense discrimination and remain targets of hatred today. The future well-being of American Jewish communities depends on it.
Holly Huffnagle serves as AJC’s U.S. Director for Combating Antisemitism. Previously, she served in the Office of the Special Envoy to Monitor and Combat Antisemitism at the U.S. Department of State under President Obama. Holly is from Ventura County and went through the California public school system. Follow her on Twitter: @HHuffnagleAJC.