Antisemitism: An Assault on Human Rights (cont'd 3)

Antisemitism: An Assault on Human Rights
Supplement Contents 1
Supplement Contents 2


Antisemitism: An Assault on Human Rights

Supplement Contents 2

Delineation of the Pale of Settlment (April 1835)
In 1791, Catherine the Great issued a decree barring Jews from certain areas in the Russian Empire. The area in which Jews were allowed to live became known as the Pale of Settlement. Nicholas I officially delineated the Pale of Settlement in April 1835. It was abolished in 1917.

3. A permanent residence is permitted to the Jews; (a) In the provinces: Grodno, Vilna, Volhynia, Podolia, Minsk, Ekaterinoslav. (b) In the districts: Bessarabia, Bialystok.

4. In addition to the provinces and districts listed in the preceding section, a permanent residence is permitted to the Jews, with the following restrictions: (a) in Kiev province, with the exception of the provincial capital, Kiev; (b) in Kherson province, with the exception of the city of Nikolaev; (c) in Tavaria province, with the exception of the city of Sebatopol; (d) in the Mogilev and Vitebsk provinces, except in the villages; (e) in Chernigov and Poltava provinces, but not within the government and Cossack villages, where the expulsion of the Jews has already been completed; (f) in Courland province permanent residence is permitted only to those Jews who have been registered until the present date with their families in census lists. Entry for the purpose of settlement is forbidden to Jews from other provinces; (g) in Lithland province, in the city of Riga and the suburb Shlok, with the same restrictions as those applying in Courland province...

11. Jews who have gone abroad without a legal exit-permit are deprived of Russian citizenship and not permitted to return to Russia.

12. Within the general area of settlement and in every place where the Jews are permitted permanent residence, they are allowed not only to move from place to place and to settle in accordance with the general regulations, but also to acquire real estate of all kinds with the exception of inhabited estates, the ownership of which is strictly forbidden to Jews...

23. Every Jew must be registered according to the law in one of the legal estates of the realm. Any Jew not complying with this regulation will be treated as a vagrant.

Motive for Establishing Jewish Schools (1844)
This excerpt from a memorandum accompanied a decree that established Jewish schools in Russia.

The purpose of educating the Jews is to bring about their gradual merging with the Christian nationalities, and to uproot those superstitions and harmful prejudices which are instilled by the teachings of the Talmud.

General Ulysses S. Grant's General Order No. 11
(United States, December 17, 1862)
General Grant blamed the Jews in his department (Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi) for illegal cotton trading during the US Civil War. Only a handful of Jews were involved in the trade, but Grant expelled all Jews from the area under his control.

The Jews, as a class violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department and also department orders, are hereby expelled from the department within 24 hours from receipt of this order.

Post commanders will see to it that all of this class of people be furnished passes and required to leave, and any one returning after such notification will be arrested.... No passes will be given these people to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application of trade permits.

President Lincoln reversed Grant's order a few weeks later.

The "May Laws" (Russia, May 3, 1882)
A two-year spate of pogroms began in Russia in 1881. Alexander III, following the policy of "isolation and assimilation," enacted the May Laws.

1. As a temporary measure and until the revision of the laws regulating their status, Jews are forbidden to settle hereafter outside of cities and towns. Exception is made with regard to Jewish villages already in existence where the Jews are engaged in agriculture.

2. Until further order all contracts for the mortgaging or renting of real estate situated outside of cities and towns to a Jew, shall be of no effect. Equally void is any power of attorney granted to a Jew for the administration or disposition of property of the above-indicated nature.

3. Jews are forbidden to do business on Sundays and Christian holidays; the laws compelling Christians to close their places of business on those days will be applied to Jewish places of business.

4. The above measures are applicable only in the governments situated within the pale of settlement.

Discrimination in the Russian military (1882)
The Tsarist Minister of War issued the following regulation to decrease the number of Jewish doctors in the military because doctors possessed the rights of army officers, a privilege otherwise unattainable for Jews.

First, to limit the number of Jewish the Military Department to five percent of the general number of medical men. Second, to stop appointing Jews on medical service in the military districts of Western Russia, and to transfer the surplus over and above five percent to the Eastern districts.

Third, to appoint Jewish physicians only in those contingents of the army in which the budget calls for at least two physicians, with the proviso that the second physician must be a Christian.

It is necessary to stop the constant growth of the number of physicians of the Mosaic [Jewish] persuasion in the Military Department, in view of their deficient conscientiousness in discharging their duties and their unfavorable influence upon the sanitary service in the army.

Chronology of Antisemitic Laws in Russia (Late 19th C.)
The late nineteenth century brought antisemitic laws to Russia under Alexander III and his successor, Nicholas II.

1882 An order by the Governor-General of St. Petersburg shut down the business of fourteen apothecaries.

1886 A Senatorial decision set forth that no Jew could be elected to a vacancy on the board of an orphan asylum.

1886 A circular of the Minister of Finance and a Senatorial decree introduced rigorous restrictions concerning Jews engaged in the liquor traffic, permitting them to sell liquor only from their own homes and owned property.

1887 A Senatorial resolution stated that Jews who graduated from a university outside Russia do not belong to the privileged class possessing the universal right of residence by virtue of their diplomas, and therefore must not settle outside the Pale of Settlement.

1887 An Imperial sanction prohibited Jews from settling in Finland.

1889 Jews must obtain a special permit from the Minister of Justice to be elected to the Bar.

1891 An order forbade non-Christians from acquiring real estate in the provinces of Akmolinski, Semirietchensk, Uralsk and Turgai.

1892 In accordance with a proposal of the Imperial Council, the mining industry in Turkestan was closed to Jews.

1894 The Minister of the Interior decreed that Jews that have graduated from a veterinary college are no longer to be admitted to the service of the State.

1895 A Senatorial decision asserted that rabbis possess no right of residence beyond the Pale of Settlement.

1895 A circular of the Minister of War instructed the Cossack authorities in the Caucasus and the Don Territory that Jews visiting the Don, Kuban and Terek provinces for the sake of the medicinal waters are to be turned back.

Chronology of Greek Laws against Jews (1880-1922)
The Greek government passed antisemitic laws in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries aimed at excluding Jews from Greek society.

1880's During this decade Jewish head covering was forbidden for a time.

1913 A weekly market held on Monday was transferred to Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath, to discourage Jewish participation.

1922 Sunday closing laws were enacted in some communities as a measure of economic protection for non-Jews against Jewish merchants.

1922 through 1923, the mayor of Salonika prohibited Jews from working at the port. They were replaced with Greek refugees who returned to Greece after World War I.

A Twentieth-Century Yemenite Version of the Pact of Umar (1905)
This decree, modeled on the original seventh century Pact of Umar, stipulated the nature of relations between Muslims and non-Muslims in Muslim lands.

...This is a decree which the Jews must obey as commanded. They are obliged to observe everything in it. They are forbidden to disobey it....That is that these Jews are guaranteed protection upon payment of the jizya by each adult male...In this way their blood is spared, and they are brought in the pact of protection. They may not avoid it. It is incumbent upon each individual to pay it...

...They are not to assist each other against a Muslim. They may not build their houses higher than Muslim homes. They shall not crowd them in their street. They may not turn them away from their watering places. They may not belittle the Islamic religion, nor curse any of the prophets. They shall not mislead a Muslim in matters pertaining to his religion. They may not ride on saddles, but only sit sidesaddle. They may not wink or point to the nakedness of Muslim. They may not display their Torah except in their synagogues. Neither shall they raise their voices when reading, nor blow their shofars loudly. Rather a muffled voice will suffice....It is their duty to recognize the superiority of the Muslim and to accord him honor.

- Sulayman b. Yihya Habshush, Eshkolot Merorot

Paraguay's Immigration Rules (late 1930s)
The government of Paraguay, after allowing some Jews to enter the country–in particular, those who could work in the agricultural sector and those with capital–issued a decree which "forbids entry of Jews, irrespective of nationality, into Paraguay." In 1938, White Russian immigrants provoked anti-Jewish attacks. Seventeen Jews were expelled from the country as "Communists" and Jewish immigration was thwarted.

South African Quota Acts (1930 and 1937)
Fearing an influx of Jewish immigrants, the South African government instituted a quota policy in which immigrants were placed in one of two tiers. Those from some European countries were allowed unfettered immigration, while Jews were limited to extremely small numbers or banned entirely. When fascism arose in Europe in the 1930's, additional Jews sought to immigrate to South Africa, including many from Germany, who would ordinarily be considered immigrants from a more "desirable" country. In 1937, the government therefore amended the 1930 law to allow only those who were considered readily assimilable into South African society to enter, effectively allowing the government to ban Jewish immigrants. The effect of this was that almost all applications for immigration by German Jews fleeing Europe were denied.

1930 The Quota Act severely restricted immigration of Jews to South Africa.

1937 The Aliens Act was enacted, curtailing German Jewish immigration on grounds of "unassailability." Jews were excluded from membership in the National Party, whose 1937 platform urged the complete prohibition of Jewish immigration and the introduction of quotas restricting Jewish participation in economic life.
Report from a Baghdad School (October 3, 1934)
As anti-Jewish agitation increased during the 1930's in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, the Iraqi government passed laws that marginalized Jews. Jewish employees of state industries were dismissed, limitations were placed on the number of Jewish students allowed in secondary and post-secondary schools. In 1935, Zionist activity in Iraq was declared illegal. In 1941, a pogrom in Baghdad resulted in the deaths of 900 Jews. The following report from 1934 prepared by an official at a Jewish school illustrates the beginning of this trend.

I am pained to inform you that for the last few months a movement of hostility against the Jews has been taking shape around us and is becoming more accentuated from day to day It began with the more and more systematic dismissal of Jewish employees from government service. After tens of lower and middle senior employees, the secretary of the Ministry of Public Works and the assistant Director of Posts and Telegraph, both Jews, were dismissed after so many others had been previously sacrificed. These continual dismissals have greatly alarmed our Community, which has met to study the situation and see in what measure it can react. Some have advised a mass protest; others have suggested the need to still remain silent. No solution was adopted and the situation remains unchanged.

Furthermore, in secondary and superior schools, a numerus clausus has been established for Jewish pupils, whose number may not exceed 10 percent of the non-Jewish students, even though the Jewish population of Baghdad (80,000) is one fourth of the total population.

Jewish businessmen would have sent funds to Palestine with the aim of undertaking certain commercial transactions. These transfers of money have encountered diverse opposition and multiple hindrances.

The Jewish newspapers from Palestine and Europe have been placed on the index and their entry into Iraq is forbidden. On the list is The Jewish Chronicle, l'Univers Israelite, and the Paix et Droit. The result of this is that we are ignorant of everything going on in the Jewish world. Japanese Policies and Attitudes (before and during World War II)


Japanese Policies and Attitudes (before and during World War II)
In 1937, as Japan’s relationship with Germany grew, Japan adopted antisemitic policies. Three powerful antisemites in the army–Norihuro Yesue, Koreshige Inuzuka and Nobutaka Shioden–wrote and spoke publicly about the Jewish conspiracy to control world markets. In addition, criticism of antisemitism was made punishable by prison. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Jews in Japan were ordered out of larger cities. Synagogues were closed in the city of Harbin. The ghetto in Shanghai, which was controlled by Japan, was home to 17,000 Jewish refugees. Concerns about economic competition led Japan to restrict immigration of refugees.

Racial Laws in Occuied Libya (1939)
The governor of Lybia advised Mussolini to modify Italy’s anti-Jewish laws in Libya; Mussolini rejected the request.

My Leader,

The law for the defense of the race are being applied in Libya. We have made arrangements to dismiss from government service officials who are of the Jewish race, and Jewish pupils have been expelled from secondary schools. Changes have been made in banks’ discount committees and in the managing boards of official and semi-official bodies and municipal councils for the purpose of implementing the provisions of the law.

I have diligently examined the local Jewish problem as a whole. Certain situations and aspects have emerged which deserve much consideration and to which I feel it my duty to call your exalted attention.

In this region the Jewish population has special characteristics both in quality and numbers. It is an important ethnic element, since about one-fifth of the total population of Tripoli is Jewish. The presence in Libya of strong troops of Jews dates back to time immemorial...Even before the Italian occupation the Jews received protection from Italy, set up schools and spread the Italian language. Most of them live in very backward social conditions, and do not take the slightest part in political activities. They are mostly peaceful and timid, craftsman and peddlers keeping to their modest little workshops and stalls, intent only on making a living from their occupation.

In contrast with this vast majority, a few dozen wealthy Jews run almost all local industry and trade, are the banks’ main clients, provide the funds for most of the Muslim business enterprises.

If the Jews stopped participating in the economy before they could be replaced by a group of Catholic merchants and industrialists, there would be economic imbalances in Libya. Looking at the local situation on a general level, I can point out several special cases that could not be readily solved:

Hospitals in Libya treat numerous in-patients of the Jewish race, cared for by Jewish employees. This is essential because they obviously cannot be cared for by Muslims. Medical care for Muslim women giving birth is also provided by Jewish women, since Muslim nurses are lacking. Replacing this staff with metropolitans is both unacceptable and impossible.... Hence, strict application of the measures would mean that Jews would be deprived of hospital services.

Monopoly industries whose main factories are in Tripoli largely use trained Jewish female workers, especially for the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes. These workers may no longer be employed by the governing authorities. It is not possible to find in Libya Italian nationals who are both skilled and willing to accept the same modest wages.

The government and municipals employ Jewish clerks whose conduct is irreproachable. They have been working for a long time as Arabic and Hebrew interpreters; if they were dismissed, they would have to be replaced. Though in time this would be easy for Arabic, it would be impossible for Hebrew, since only those who profess the Jewish religion know it.

In a country like this one, which had always had the virtue, compared with neighboring countries, of allowing Jews and Arabs to live together in full harmony, it would in my opinion be advisable to avoid making the struggle for defense of the race a harsh one. The Jews are already a dead people; there is no mean to oppress them cruelly, especially since the Arabs, the traditional enemies of the Jews now show no signs of feeling sorry for them.

No one can suspect me of weakness, since–as everyone remembers–two years ago I did not hesitate to order the public flogging of Jews, even those of high social standing, who were guilty of adopting an attitude of passive indifference to certain official measures. But I have a duty to portray the situation frankly and as it really is. Accordingly, may I venture to advise you to give the Government of Libya authorization to apply the racial laws " to the extent desirable in view of the very special local situation."

With my sincere respect,
Your faithful servant.

Mussolini replies:

Reply to your letter regarding Libyan Jews. No changes should be made regarding the situations listed....Nonindigenous Jews, that is, those with metropolitan citizenship, should be given the treatment they receive in Italy under the recent laws. I therefore authorize you to apply the racial laws as above, remembering that though the Jews may seem to be dead, they never really are.

Nazi Era Laws (1935-1945)
The following laws demonstrate Nazi measures to cut off the Jew from German society, and throughout Europe and other areas conquered by Germany and the Axis powers. Similar laws were forced upon or appropriated by other countries during World War II. These laws began with loss of citizenship and ended with genocide.

The Reich Citizenship Law (September 15, 1935)

Article II:
(1) A citizen of the Reich is only that subject, who is of German or kindred blood and who, through his conduct, shows that he is both desirous and fit to serve faithfully the German people and Reich.

(2) The right to citizenship is acquired by the granting of Reich citizenship papers.

(3) Only the citizen of the Reich enjoys full political rights in accordance with the provisions of the Laws.

The Fuehrer and Reichs Chancellor Adolf Hitler
The Reichs Minister of the Interior Frick

Law for the Protection of German Blood And German Honor (September 15, 1935)
Thoroughly convinced by the knowledge that the purity of German blood is essential for the further existence of the German people the inflexible will to safeguard the German nation for the entire future. The Reichs Parliament (Reichstag) has resolved upon the following law unanimously which is promulgated herewith:

Section 1. Marriages between Jews and nationals of German or kindred blood are forbidden.

Section 2. Relations outside marriage between Jews and nationals of German or kindred blood are forbidden.

Section 3. Jews will not be permitted to employ female nationals of German or kindred blood in their household...

Section 4.1. Jews are forbidden to hoist the Reich’s...national flag and to present the colors of the Reich.

Section 4.2. On the other hand they are permitted to present the Jewish colors. The exercise of this authority is protected by the State.

First Regulation to the Reich’s Citizenship Law (Germany, 1935)
Article 2:
(2) An individual of mixed Jewish blood is one who is descended from one or two grandparents who, racially, were full Jews, insofar that he is not a Jew according to Section 2 of Article 5. Full-blooded Jewish grandparents are those who belonged to the Jewish religious community.

Article 4:
(1) A Jew cannot be a citizen of the Reich. He has no right to vote in political affairs, he cannot occupy a public office.
(2) Jewish officials will retire as of 31 December 1935. If these officials served at the front in the World War, either for Germany or her allies, they will receive in full, until they reach the age limit, the pension to which they were entitled according to last received wages; they will, however, not advance in seniority.

Article 5:
(1) A Jew is anyone who descended from at least three grandparents who were racially full Jews.

(2) A Jew is also one who descended from two full Jewish parents, if:

(a) He belonged to the Jewish religious community at the time this law was issued or who joined the community later.
(b) He was married to a Jewish person, at the time the law was issued, or married one subsequently.
(c) He is the offspring from a marriage with a Jew, in the sense of section 1, which was contracted after the Law for the protection of German blood and German honor became effective (RGB1, I, page 1146 of 15 Sept. 1935).
(d) He is the offspring of an extramarital relationship, with a Jew, according to section1, and will be born out of wedlock after July 31, 1936 ...
The Fuehrer and Reichs Chancellor Adolf Hitler
The Reich Minister of the Interior Frick
The Deputy of the Fuehrer R. Hess
Reich Minister without Portfolio

Decree governing the Introduction of the Nuremberg Racial Laws in the Province Of Austria (May 20, 1938)
On the basis of Article II of the Law of March 13, 1938, governing the Reunion of Austria with the German Reich (Reichgesetzblatt I page 237), the following is decreed:

Section 3. The exclusion of Jews from public offices which they occupy at the time this decree goes into effect will be specially regulated.

Fourth Decree Relating to the Reich Citizenship Law (July 25, 1938)
Section 1. Licenses (Bestallungen) of Jewish physicians terminate as of September 30, 1938.

Section 3.
(1) A Jew whose licenses have terminated and to whom a permit in accordance with section 2 has not been granted are forbidden to practice the art of healing.
(2) A Jew who has been granted a permit in accordance with section 2 may, aside from his wife and his children born in wedlock, treat only Jews.

Fifth Decree Governing Reich Citizenship Law (September 27, 1938)

Article I: Elimination of Jews from Corps of Lawyers:

Section 1. The profession of lawyer is closed to Jews. In so far as Jews are still lawyers they are eliminated from the Corps of Lawyers in accordance with the following regulations:
a) In the old Reich territory: The licenses of Jewish lawyers are to be revoked as of November 30, 1938;
b) In the Province of Austria: Jewish lawyers are to be stricken from the list of lawyers at the latest by December 31, 1938, by order of the Reich Minister of Justice.

Decree Concerning the Utilization of JewishProperty (December 3, 1938)

Article I: Business Enterprises:

Section 1. The owner of a Jewish business enterprise (Third Decree of June 14, 1938, under the Reich’s Citizenship Law Reichsgesetzblatt 1938, Part I, page 627) can be ordered to sell or dispose of his business within a fixed period of time. Certain conditions can be applied to this regulation.

Section 2. Par. 1. For Jewish business enterprises whose owners have been compelled, in accordance with Section 1 of this Decree, to sell or to liquidate the business, a Trustee can be appointed for continuing temporarily the business and for effecting the sale or liquidation...Par. 4. The cost of the administration by the Trustee has to be paid by the owner of the business.

Article II: Farming and Forestry Real Estate and Other Property:

Section 6. A Jew can be ordered to sell within a fixed period, in whole or in part, his agricultural or forestry business, his other agricultural or forestry property, his other real property or other parts of his property. Such an order can be made under certain conditions.

Regulations for the Execution of the DecreeConcerning the Utilization of Jewish Property:

Article I:
2 (1) The "Decree concerning the utilization of Jewish property" alters the former legal status, especially in that the elimination of Jews from Jewish concerns, from the ownership of real estate, and from other important property assets, can also be effected by compulsion

Article II: Elimination of Jews from Business Concerns:

Section 7. If in the case of a permit for the desemitization of a business concern conditions are also made regarding the transfer of shares of stock and other securities, a special permit according to Section 12 of the Decree is not necessary.

Article III: Elimination of Jews from the Ownership of Real Estate:

1 (1) Regarding the elimination of Jews from the ownership of real estate, the Decree of December 3, 1938, establishes two important new rules, namely: In section 7 the general prohibition against Jews acquiring real estate, rights similar to real estate and rights in real estate (mortgages, "Grundschulden," etc.); and in Section 8 the obligation upon Jews to apply for a permit to enable them to dispose of their real estate or rights similar to real estate.
9. I [the Minister of Internal Affairs] have expressed in general my approval to the Reich’s Minister of Finance that Jewish real property taken instead of cash as payment of the "Jewish atonement fine" will be transferred to the ownership of the Reich.

Implementation Order No. 1 for the Regulation of October 26, 1939 for the Introduction of Forced Labor for the Jewish Population in the Government-General (German Occupied Poland, December 11, 1939)

Pursuant to S 2 of the Regulation for the introduction of Forced Labor for the Jewish population of October 26, 1939 (Verordnungsbl. G.G.P., p6), I order the following:

1. As from January 1, 1940, it is forbidden for all Jews within the Government-General of the Occupied Polish Territories to move their place of residence or lodging, without the written permission of the local German Administrative Authority, beyond the limits of the community of their place of residence, or to cross the border of this community and to move away after giving up their permanent residence or lodging.

2. All Jews moving into, or transferred into, the Government-General are required to register immediately with the mayor of the locality when they have taken up residence, but no later than 24 hours after entering the Government-General, and to inform the local Judenrat of their presence. The Judenrat will record this information in writing and submit it to the Mayor on the Monday of each week, against written acknowledgment.

3. After having obtained accommodation, all Jews referred to in S 2 must comply with the requirements of S 1.

4. All Jews within the Government-General are forbidden to enter or use pathways, streets and public squares between the hours of 9:00 P.M. and 5:00 A.M. without written authority specifying the times and places, issued by the local German authorities. Orders by local German authorities containing more severe restrictions are not affected by this regulation.

5. The restrictions of S 4 do not apply in cases of public or personal emergency.

6. Jews contravening the regulations under S 1 through 4 will be sent immediately to prolonged hard forced labor. This does not affect punishment provided by other orders.

7. The orders under S 1 through 6 do not apply to Jews who have moved under the provisions permitting them to do so in accordance with the law setting out an "Agreement between the German Reich Government and the Government of the U.S.S.R. concerning the transfer of the Ukrainian and Byelorussian population out of the area belonging to the Zone of Interest of the German Reich."

8. The public announcement of these instructions will be carried out by the Mayors according to orders by the sub-district Commander (Kreishauptmann) or the City commander (Stadthauptmann). The Judenraete will be instructed by the Mayors.

9. These orders are effective immediately.

–Higher SS and Police Leader (Hoeherer SS-und Polizeifuehrer) in the Government-General of the Occupied Polish Territories Krueger SS Obergruppenfuehrer

German Regulation for the Use of Railroad by Jews in the Government-General (Poland and surrounding occupied areas, January 26, 1940)
1. The use of the Railroad by Jews is prohibited until further notice.
2. This does not apply to journeys for which there is an order in writing from the Governor General, his office, or of a District Commander.

Policies Concerning Treatment of Jews in the Government-General (April 6, 1940)
In order to preserve uniformity in dealing with all Jewish affairs, it is necessary to reach an understanding concerning the basis on which our future work will be built up.

On taking over the department of Jewish affairs in the Office of the Governor General, I am therefore turning to the advisers in this field and would like to outline briefly the attitude that will be appropriate in confrontation with Jewry. This will at the same time indicate the targets at which we must aim (Basic Working Principles 1-9). These working principles are roughly as follows:

1. Spatial separation between Poles and Jews. In the decision whether a person is a Jew or a non-Jew, the sole essential factors are his racial origins and blood and his acceptance of Judaism (through marriage of a non-Jew with a Jew): not simply membership in a religious community.

2. A full Jew (Volljude) –unlike in the Nuremberg Laws–is a person who has two or more Jewish grandparents or is married to a Jew and does not dissolve this connection.

3. As a matter of principle Jews are to work for Jews; for instance, only Jews are to be used for the building of accommodations for Jews.

4. The Jews are to establish their own social insurance system and are not to pay contributions to non-Jewish insurance schemes, nor make claims on non-Jewish facilities.

5. The property and funds of such Jewish organizations will be under the protection of the German Administration. The same applies to Jewish welfare establishments.

6. It should be considered whether, as a temporary measure, the Polish Red Cross may be used by Jews if Jews had up to now supported and helped this institution.

7. All measures must be directed at the target that later the whole of Jewry will be concentrated in a specific district and in one area of Jewish settlement, as a self-supporting society under the control of the Reich

8. Preparation of a plan for the resettlement of 400,000 Jews who will enter the area of the Government-General after May 1, 1940.

9. Creation of archives on Polish Jews and Jews in general (newspaper reports, regulations, laws, culture, races, health care, etc.)

In addition you are requested to answer the following questions, as far as possible, in accordance with the situation in your district:

– In which districts and which sub-districts do the largest number of Jews live at the present time, and what percentage do they form of the general population in those areas (with maps, if possible)?
– Which areas are the least valuable economically as regards the nature of the soil? How large are they? Where are they situated (map)?
– Which areas are least closely populated, how large are they, how many people live there at the present time? Why are they so sparsely populated? What nationalities live there (numbers!)? To what extent would it be possible to resettle the non-Jewish nationalities? Is the area suited for a purely Jewish colony?
– What property is still in Jewish hands? Where is the Jewish property and of what does it consist? What additional means would have to be supplied for the settlement of the 400,000 Jews who will arrive here after May 1, 1940?
– What proposals can you make for the accommodation of the deportees? What possibilities of work are there for the deportees in the various districts (preferably in public services)? What temporary arrangements–camps, etc. –are still available at the present time?
– What has been done up to now in order to prevent as far as possible the likelihood of infection or disease being passed on to non-Jews? What is the position concerning health and hygiene among the Jews in the area of the Government-General, particularly where living conditions are cramped and close contact between Jews and non-Jews cannot be avoided?

In addition, I request a report on all plans for work and the dispatch of a record of all measures taken up to now by your office in any Jewish affairs.

Dr. Gottong
Head of Department for Jewish Affairs

Anti-Jewish laws in Vichy-controlled France (during World War II)

Law of 3 October 1940:

Article I. For the purposes of the present law, a Jew is one who has three grandparents of the Jewish race; or who has two grandparents of that race, if his or her spouse is Jewish.

Article II. The availability and exercise of the following public functions and duties are denied to Jews:
Head of State, member of the government, the Conseil d’Etat, the national council of the Legion of Honor, the Cour de Cassation..., the courts of appeal, courts of first jurisdiction, justices of the peace, etc.

Law of 4 October 1940:
Foreign nationals of the Jewish race may, from the promulgation date of the present law, be interned in special camps by a decision of the prefect of the department of their residence.

A commission charged with the organization and administration of these camps shall be constituted within the Ministry of the Interior.... Foreign nationals of the Jewish race may at any time be assigned a forced residence by the prefect of the department in which they reside.

Ban on Jewish Emigration from the Government-General (November 23, 1940)
Memorandum to District Governors in the Government-General:

In a Decree of October 25, 1940, the Reich Security Main Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt) has informed me of the following:

"Owing to the fact that the emigration of Jews from the Government-General still further considerable reduced the already shrinking opportunities for emigration for Jews from the Altreich, the Ostmark (Austria) and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, contrary to the wish of the Reich Marshal, I request that no such emigration be considered.

"The continued emigration of Jews from Eastern Europe [to the West] spells a continued spiritual regeneration of world Jewry, as it is mainly the Eastern Jews who supply a large proportion of the rabbis, Talmud teachers, etc., owing to their statements. Further, every Orthodox Jew from Eastern Europe spells a valuable addition for these Jewish organizations in the United States in their constant efforts for the spiritual renewal of United States Jewry and its unification. It is United States Jewry in particular, which is endeavoring, with the help of newly immigrated Jews, especially from Eastern Europe, to create a new basis from which it intends to force ahead its struggle, particularly against Germany.

"For these reasons it can be assumed that after a certain number of emigration permits have been issued, creating a precedent for Jews from the Government-General, so to speak, a large part of the entry visas, (which are) mainly for the United States, will in future only be made available for Jews from Eastern Europe."

I fully accept the point of view of the Reich Security Main Office and request that you will not pass on to the office here for decision any more applications by Jews to emigrate. Such applications of course have to be rejected here.

I empower you to reject without further investigation any applications by Jews from the Government-General for permission to emigrate. It is requested that applications to emigrate shall be forwarded here only if they involve Jews holding foreign citizenship. As there is no further question of emigration by Jews from the Government-General as a matter of principle, there is also no need for a Jew to receive a permit to visit the Reich for the purpose of obtaining a visa from a foreign consulate in the German Reich. It is requested that even applications by Jews for the issuing of a permit for the purpose of obtaining a visa from a foreign consulate in the Reich should also be rejected.

(for) Eckhaardt

Bolivia Visa Restriction (1940)

Public concern over Jewish refugees resulted in the Bolivian Secret Police raiding the Jewish community center in La Paz in 1939. Attacks against Jews also appeared in the press at this time. The following decree was posted on the wall of the anteroom of the Bolivian Consulate in Buenos Aires:

Decree of 6 May 1940
Article 1. It is prohibited in general terms for national consuls to provide passports and tourist visas to semitic elements.
Article 2. This regulation is incorporated as a general tourism regulation on 24 November 1939. Made public in the city of La Paz on 6 May 1940. General Enrique Penaranda Alberto Ostria Gutierrex

Antisemitic Legislation in Yugoslavia (1940)

Regulation Concerning the Measures which Relate to the Jews with Respect to the Operation of Business Involving Objects of Human Sustenance

The Royal Government has prescribed the Regulation concerning measures which relate to Jews with respect to the operation of business involving human foodstuffs. The text of this Regulation reads:

Article I:

Commercial businesses which deal in wholesale trade with human foodstuffs, regardless of whether their owners are material or legal persons, are to be submitted to review if the owners of businesses are Jews.

All those businesses are to be considered as businesses of Jews whose owners or co-owners are Jews on the day when this Regulation goes into effect or whose capital in whole or the majority thereof is in the hands of Jews.

Joint stock companies, companies with limited liability, and co-operatives are to be considered Jewish if the management, directors, and confidential clerks of the companies or co-operatives are, in the majority, Jews....

Regulation on the Limitation of Schooling of Persons of Jewish Origin

The Ministerial Council has prescribed the Regulation on the enrollment of persons of Jewish origin as students of universities, higher, middle, normal and other vocational schools.

Article I:

At universities, high schools with the rank of universities, higher, middle, normal, and other vocational schools may be enrolled only a fixed number of pupils of Jewish origin. This number will be determined in such a way that they will be a proportion to the number of other pupils of this school in that ratio in which citizens of Jewish origin are to be found in proportion to the number of other citizens....

Article III:

Foreigners of Jewish origin may not enroll as students at universities or other schools listed in Article 1, paragraph 1 of this regulation....

Heydrich’s Guidelines (Soviet Union, July 2, 1941)
Reich Secret Document
In the following I make known briefly the most important instructions given to me by the Einsatzgruppen and Kommandos of the Security Police and the SD, with the request to take note of them...
4) Executions
All of the following are to be executed:
Officials of the Comintern (together with professional Communist politicians in general); top- and medium-level officials and radical lower-level officials of the Party, Central Committee and district and sub-district committees; people’s Commissars; Jews in Party and State employment, and other radical elements (saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins, inciters, etc.) insofar as they are, in any particular case, required or no longer to be required, to supply information on political or economic matters which are of special importance for the further operations of the Security Police, or for the economic reconstruction of the Occupied Territories....

Regulation on the Introduction of Forced Labor of the Jewish Population (August 16, 1941)
Pursuant to Article 8 of the Fuehrer’s edict on the Admininistration of the newly occupied Eastern Territories of July 17, 1941, I order the following:

Article I:
Male and female Jews aged from their completed 14th to completed 60th year, residing in the newly occupied Eastern Territories, are liable for Forced Labor. The Jews will be collected in Forced Labor groups for this purpose.

Article II:
1) Any person evading Forced Labor will be sent to prison with hard labor.
2) In the event of several persons conspiring to avoid Forced Labor, or in other especially grave cases, the death penalty may be imposed.
3) Cases will be judged by the Special Courts. . .
-The Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories, signed Rosenberg

Resettlement Order (Government General, July 19, 1942)
I herewith order that the resettlement of the entire Jewish population of the Government-General be carried out and completed by December 31, 1942.

From December 31, 1942, no persons of Jewish origin may remain within the Government-General, unless they are in collection camps in Warsaw, Cracow, Czestochowa, Radom, and Lublin. All other work on which Jewish labor is employed must be finished by that date, or, in the event that this is not possible, it must be transferred to one of the collection camps.

These measures are required with a view to the necessary ethnic division of races and peoples for the New Order in Europe, and also in the interests of the security and cleanliness of the German Reich and its sphere of interest. Every breach of this regulation spells a danger to quiet and order in the entire German sphere of interest, a point of application for the resistance movement and a source of moral and physical pestilence.

For all these reasons a total cleansing is necessary and therefore to be carried out. Cases in which the date set cannot be observed will be reported to me in time, so that I can see to corrective action at an early date. All requests by other offices for changes or permits for exceptions to be made must be presented to me personally.

Heil Hilter!

H. Himmler

Expulsion of Moroccan Jews from European Neighborhoods (August 22, 1941)

Bulletin Officiel du Marco

Article 1. –Moroccan Jewish subjects occupying residential locations, in whatever capacity, in the European sectors of the municipalities, must evacuate the said locations within a month of the date of the publication of the present dahir in the Bulletin Officel, unless they can prove their having taken up residence prior to September 1, 1939....

Article 4. –Moroccan Jews residing in the European sectors of the municipalities prior to September 1, 1939, will evacuate their dwellings within a time period that will be set by executive order of Our Grand Vizier.

Article 6. –Infractions of the dispositions of the dahir and any attempted maneuver to obstruct them will be punished with a fine of 500 to 10,000 francs, in addition to the total amount of the rents. Furthermore the recalcitrant tenant can be expelled by administrative decision.

Governor General of Algeria Informs Chief Rabbi of Algiers of a numerus clausus for Jewish Children in Public Primary Schools (September 30, 1941)

Government General of Algeria, Office for Jewish Questions and Secret Societies
No. 343 QJ
Algiers, 30 September 1941, Monsieur Eisenbeth,
Chief Rabbi of Algiers
62, rue Constantine


Monsieur Chief Rabbi,

You kindly asked me in your letter of September 21 what decision had been taken concerning the admission of Jewish children to the primary schools.

I have the honor to inform you that as I had informed you during a previous audience, a numerus clausus has been established for primary education, fixing the number in each school at 14 percent of the total student body. This numerus clausus will be applied to all new pupils from the next term.

However, in order to facilitate your organizing elementary Jewish instruction, I have decided not to apply temporarily this numerus clauses for pupils already in school. This postponement, in any case, will be in effect only until this coming December 31.

As of January 1, 1942, the figure of 14 percent will be valid for all Jewish pupils, and the elimination of all children over the figure will be immediately announced.

I can only urge you, therefore, to make the most of this delay for creating the schools that will be needed to receive the children who will find themselves in excess of the abovementioned numerus clausus.

Please accept, M. Chief Rabbi, the assurance of my highest consideration.

The Governor General
(signed:) WEYGAND

Directives by Lohse Concerning the Jews of Ostland, (August 13, 1941)
Ostland was one of the two administrative units of the German civil administration in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union, headed by Alfred Rosenberg, as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories; the other was Reichskommissariat Ukraine. Ostland included the three Baltic states — Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia — as well as western Belorussia and the western Minsk district in Soviet Belorussia.

The Reichskommissar for Ostland

Provisional Directives for the treatment of Jews in the area of the Reichskommissariat Ostland...

I.a. For the time being only such Jews who are citizens of the German Reich, the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, of the former Republics of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, of the U.S.S.R. or of its component states, or stateless Jews, will be subject to these directives.

I.b. Other Jews of foreign citizenship, Mishlinge, and spouses of Jews who do not wish to share the fate of the Jewish spouses will be denied permission to leave the area of the R.K. Ostland as it is a military area. They are to be kept under surveillance. In addition they may be subjected to the following [measures] among others: Obligation to report daily, a ban on moving [from their place of residence], assignment to a specific dwelling, a ban on leaving the city area, limitations on moving about. If necessary they may be taken into police custody until a further decision is made...

IV. The Generalkommissar in whose areas a civil administration has been introduced will provide immediately for the following...

b) It will be decreed that Jews identify themselves by the wearing of constantly visible yellow six-cornered stars, at least 10cms across, on the left side of the chest and in the center of the back.

c) The following is forbidden to Jews:
1. To move from their locality or change their place of residence without the permission of the Gebietskommissar or Stadtskommissar.
2. The use of sidewalks, public transportation and automobiles.
3. The use of recreational facilities and institutions serving the public (resort areas and bathing facilities, parks and open spaces, playgrounds and athletic fields). 4. To attend theaters or movie houses, libraries or museums.
5. To attend schools of any type.
6. To possess automobiles or radios.
7. [Kosher] slaughtering.

d) Jewish doctors and dentists may treat or advise Jewish patients only. Where ghettos or camps are set up they will be distributed through them for the care of the inmates. Jewish druggists are permitted to practice their profession only in ghettos and camps, according to need. Drugstores previously managed by Jews are to be transferred, under trusteeship, to Aryan druggists.
Jewish veterinarians are forbidden to practice their profession.

e) Jews are forbidden the exercise of the professions and occupations listed below:
1. Attorney-at-law...
2. Banking, money-changing and pawnbroking.
3. Middleman and agents.
4. Trade in real estate.
5. Traveling peddlers.

f) The following is decreed for the handling of Jewish property:
1) General: The property of the Jewish population is to be confiscated and placed in safekeeping...
2) Compulsory Registration: All Jewish property is to be registered.
3) Compulsory Surrender: Jewish property is to be surrendered on special demand. The demand may be made by general proclamation or by order to certain individuals...

V. The following further measures are to be strived for vigorously, with due consideration for local, and particularly economic conditions.
a) The countryside is to be cleansed of Jews.
b) The Jews are to be removed from all trade, and especially from trade in agricultural products and other foodstuffs...
d) As far as possible the Jews are to be concentrated in cities or in sections of large cities, where the population is already predominantly Jewish. There, ghettos are to be established, and the Jews are to be prohibited from leaving these ghettos. In the ghettos the Jews are to receive only as much food as the rest of the population can spare, but not more than is required for their bare subsistence....
e) Jews fit for work will be drafted for forced labor as required....Payment for the work need not be based in performance, but should cover only the bare subsistence of the forced laborers and members of his family not capable of working, taking into account other monies at his disposal....
Higher SS and Police Leader
Generalkommissar: Estonia

Anti-Jewish laws in Tunisia during the period of Nazi rule (December 23, 1942)


It is International Jewry that wanted the war and prepared for it.

The inhabitants of the land of Tunisia–French, Italian, and Muslim–have suffered cruelly from the war on account of the aerial bombardment which struck the country in recent days.

Therefore, I have decided to impose an indemnity upon the wealth of the Tunisian Jews in the sum of 20 million francs for aid to the civilian victims of the bombardment. The distribution of the aid will be in the hands of a committee organized under the name of "Committee for Immediate Relief," which will come directly to the assistance of everyone who has personally suffered harm either to his person or his property due to the criminal Anglo-American aerial bombardment of unarmed civilians.

Consequently, all civilian inhabitants of Tunis, whether French, Italian, or Muslim, who have suffered damage because of the Anglo-American aggression, should come forward with a detailed request setting forth the damage incurred to the office of the aforementioned committee in the Center for National Relief in the Palais des Societes

Francaises, Avenue de Paris....
Tunis, December 23, 1942
- The Commander-in-Chief of the Axis Forces,
General von Arnim

Order by Himmler for the Liquidation of the Ghettos of Ostland (June 21, 1943)

Reichsfuehrer SS

1. The Higher SS and Police Leader (Hoherer SS-und Polizeifuehrer Ostland)
2. Chief of the SS Economic and Administrative Main Office (Chef des SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamtes)

1) I order that all Jews still remaining in ghettos in Ostland area be collected in concentration camps.
2) I prohibit the withdrawal of Jews from concentration camps for [outside] work from August 1, 1943...
4) Inmates of Jewish ghettos who are not required are to be evacuated to the East.
-signed H. Himmler

Antisemitism in Argentina (1919-1977)
Antisemitic incidents, both governmental and popular, have occurred in Argentina since the beginning of the 20th century when Jews started immigrating there in large numbers. The government-sponsored media at one time was filled with antisemitic references, and religious restrictions hindered Jewish practice, such as a 1943 ban on kosher meat and Jewish publications ordered by Minister Martinez Zuviria, who also authored best-selling antisemitic works. Police and government officials implemented harsh policies toward the Jews, such as the secret police under Gen. José Félix Uriburu in the 1930's. Also, government officials either explicitly or tacitly approved anti-Jewish violence, as in the pogrom of 1919, in which hundreds of Argentine Jews were killed, and the repression and kidnappings of the 1970's and 1980's. In the late 1970's, a talk show host on state-controlled television baited a Jewish guest and challenged his loyalty to Argentina: "If the Jews have been persecuted for 4,000 years, there must be some reason for it, don't you think? Why is it Jews are so greedy? Why are there no poor Jews? What are you first, Argentine or Jew?"

1919 A pogrom known as the Semana Tragica by police forces and rightwing agitators against Jews resulted in approximated 700 deaths, injury and damage to Jewish communal property.

1943 Anti-Jewish laws were enacted, including bans on kosher meat, and Jewish publications were enacted.

The New York Times reported that "alarm and even terror are beginning to spread in the Jewish quarter because for some time all gatherings of Colonel Peron's followers have been a signal for some action against Jews." (November 28, 1945)

1976 The military government issued the "Act for the Process of National Reorganization." The Act vowed "to establish the validity of Christian moral ensure national security by eradicating subversion and the factors that abet it; [and to establish] an international place for Argentina in the Christian and Western world." The repression that resulted from this law targeted a disproportionate number of Jewish victims.

1977 Argentine President Videla stated that "a terrorist is not just someone with a gun or bomb but also someone who spreads ideas that are contrary to Western and Christian civilization."

Purges of Jewish Communal Leaders (Soviet Union 1949-1953)

Hundreds of Jewish activists, leaders and literary figures were arrested, reported missing, or killed. In the following excerpt from Khruschchev Remembers, Nikita Khrushchev acknowledged that Stalin ordered the death of the prominent Jewish actor, Mikhoels.

More typical was the cruel punishment of Mik-hoels, the greatest actor of the Yiddish theatre, a man of culture. They killed him like beasts. They killed him secretly. Then his murderers were rewarded and their victim was buried with honors. The mind reels at the thought! It was announced the Mikhoels had fallen in front of a truck. Actually, he was thrown in front of a truck....And who did it?

Stalin did it, or at least it was done on his instructions....I've tried to give Stalin his due and to acknowledge his merits, but there was no excuse for what, to my mind, was a major defect in his character–his hostile attitude toward the Jewish people. Stalin diminished the number of Jews in prominent positions in the Soviet hierarchy with a 1942 secret order. From 1937 to 1946, the number of Jews in the Supreme Soviet dropped from 47 (4.1%) to 5 (less than 1%). The number of Jews in the Soviet of Nationalities dropped during the same period from the 11th highest rank to the 26th. By 1961, the percentage of Jews in the Central Committee had dropped to .3% from almost 25 percent 40 years earlier. A quota system obtained in higher education. In 1948, Jews comprised one-third of the department of sciences at the University of Moscow; in 1964, 20 percent; in the late 1970's out of 500 admissions each year, less than five Jews were admitted. The following account of Milovan Djilas, a Yugoslav political leader familiar with Stalin, illustrates the official dimension to these quotas:

...A man of the apparatus of the CC [Central Committee] of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union boasted to me how Zhdanov had cleared all Jews out of the CC apparatus. The Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Army, Antonov, was accidentally discovered to be a Jew. Thus his illustrious career came to an end. The struggle against the ‘rootless' cosmopolitans in the USSR is in fact a concealed form of the struggle against Jewish intellectuals. During the war, antisemitism was more or less openly expressed in the army. There was a great deal of talk in 1948 in Moscow concerning the Hungarian CC (which, as is known, consisted mostly of Jews). Jews had also been allocated the main role in the Moscow trials. There are no more Jews in the public life of the USSR. They are citizens of a lower, the lowest, order. This same policy is now being applied in Eastern Europe against that handful of martyred people who survived Fascist extermination. And this was, is and will be done regardless of whether the Jews are bourgeois or socialist...

The Doctors' Plot and the Campaign Against "Cosmopolitanism," (1952-1953)

An antisemitic propaganda campaign climaxed with the Doctors' Plot and an uprising against "Cosmopolitanism." The following reports are from the State-controlled Soviet press.

Official Announcement of the Doctor's Plot, Pravda (January 13, 1953)

Some time ago, the agencies of state security uncovered a terrorist group of doctors who had made it their aim to cut short the lives of active public figures of the Soviet Union by means of sabotaged medical treatment....

The criminals confessed that they took advantage of Comrade A.A. Zhdanov's ailment by incorrectly diagnosing the illness and concealing an infarct of his myocardium and, by prescribing a regime contra-indicated for this serious ailment, killed Comrade A.A. Zhdanov. Investigation established that the criminals likewise cut short the life of Comrade A.S. Shcherbakov by incorrectly employing strong drugs in his treatment, treatment which was fatal to him, bringing about his death.

The criminal doctors sought, above all, to undermine the health of leading Soviet military personnel, to put them out of action and to thereby weaken the defense of the country....

...It has been established that all these homicidal doctors, who had become monsters in human form, tramping the sacred banner of science and desecrating the honor of scientists, were enrolled by foreign intelligence services as hired agents.

Most of the participants in the terrorist group (M.S. Vovsi, B.B. Kogan, A.I. Feldman, A.M. Grinshtein, Ya. G. Etinger and others) were connected with the international Jewish bourgeois nationalists organization, ‘Joint', established by American intelligence for the alleged purpose of providing material aid to Jews in other countries...

Article on Cosmopolitanism and the "Doctors Plot" Trud (February 18, 1953)

Cosmopolitanism is not just a hostile ideology. Cosmopolitanism is the savage struggle of the doomed classes against new social forces, against everything progressive....

It is not pure chance that the cosmopolitans and hardened bourgeois nationalists are given the most foul and filthy tasks by the instigators of war, including murder, espionage, sabotage, wrecking, even the assassination of the best representatives of the Russian nation. New evidence of this is the unmasking, by the organs of State security of the USSR, of a terrorist group of doctor-poisoners, enemies of the people, whose aim was to shorten the lives of active figures of the USSR.

Most members of the group–Vovsi, Kogan, Feldman, Grinshtein, Etinger and others–were linked with international Jewish bourgeois nationalist ‘Joint' organization created by the American intelligence service allegedly to give practical help to the Jews in other countries.

Within a month of Stalin's death on March 5, 1953, an announcement in Pravda acknowledged that the group of doctors had been arrested falsely and had been freed.

Measures Against Synagogues in Ukraine (1959)
The drive to destroy Jewish culture in the Soviet Union included the closure of synagogues and Hebrew schools. In 1926, there were 1,103 synagogues in the Soviet Union; by 1972, there were only 58. The following article is from the New York Times.

United Nations, NY June 18, 1959: The synagogue in a Ukrainian city was reliably reported today to have been closed by Soviet authorities last month in the Kremlin's campaign against the practice of the Jewish religion.

According to these reports all the Torahs (Books of Scripture) in the synagogue, situated in Chernigov, were confiscated. A delegation of Jews set out to seek the intervention of Dr. Yehudah Levin, rabbi of the Moscow congregation.

This followed the arrest last fall of a number of Jews in Chernovtsy, also in the Ukraine, including synagogue officials, on the charge that they had participated in ‘Zionist propaganda'. This was based on the fact that during the Passover celebration they participated in the traditional toast to ‘Next year in Jerusalem.'

So far as can be determined, the measures against the practice of the Jewish religion are inspired primarily by the Kremlin's belief that Soviet Jews are under the sway of ‘bourgeois Jewish nationalism', and thus are bound together. In other words, the campaign may be inspired by political motives rather than by the desire to crush the Jewish religion....

In Minsk, Belorussia, eight Jewish students were arrested and jailed last December for ‘having organized a Zionist cell'. A number of Jews in Kishinev, capital of the Moldavian Republic, were arrested for having violated a government decree and making mazot (unleavened bread) at a recent celebration of the Passover.

Resolution adopted at the World Islamic Congress on "Jews in Arab countries" (Sept. 22, 1967)
Following the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, the World Islamic Congress met in Jordan and adopted a resolution stating that Jews in Arab lands should be classified as "aggressive combatants."

The congress is certain that the Jewish communities living in Islamic countries do not appreciate the Moslems' good treatment and protection over the centuries. They have encouraged world Zionism and the State of Israel to commit aggression against the peaceful Arabs, usurp their homelands, and violate the Islamic holy places of Palestine. The Congress declares that the Jews residing in Arab countries who contact the Zionist circles of the State of Israel do not deserve the protection and care which Islam provides for the free non-Moslem subjects living in Islamic countries. Moslem Islamic Governments should treat them as aggressive combatants. Similarly, the Islamic peoples, individually and collectively, should boycott them and treat them as deadly enemies.

The Government of Iraq Law No. 10 (Feb. 14, 1968)
This law was enacted shortly after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.

Article I
Paragraph (6) of Article VII of Law No. 12 of 1951 as amended shall be cancelled and substituted by the following:

1. When this Law comes into force the Land Registration Departments, Waqf authorities and Notaries Public shall abstain from carrying out any transaction of sale of immovable properties belonging to the Jew, and abstain from carrying out on such properties any transactions which involves the transfer, donation, mortgage, liquidation, of joint ownership, selling by execution, making a lien as a security against a debt, bequest, rental for more than one year, causing an attachment or obligation. Also abstain from making any disposition of transaction which would result in such properties being transferred from the Jew's ownership even if the transaction is based on an irrevocable power of attorney...

Article II
(a) If the Minister of the Interior issues the necessary permit in accordance with any of the paragraphs 5, 6 and 7 of this Article, he may decide that the amounts due to the Jew be deposited in one of the banks. Each time, these amounts shall not be disbursed without the approval of the Minister or anyone who is authorized by him.

(b) The provisions of paragraph (a) above shall apply to all other transactions and dispositions which would result in sums being payable to a Jew as a consideration, excluding salaries and wages which do not exceed 100 Iraqi dinars per month. The official and semi-official departments, companies and establishments should not pay the amounts due to any Jew in respect of such transactions or dispositions, but inform the Minister of the Interior thereof.

Written in Baghdad on the 16th of Thi-l-qiada 1387, 14th of February 1968.
Ministers, Prime Minister, President of the Republic

Law of expropriation of Jewish property, Revolutionary Command Council of Libya (July 21, 1970)
Libya passed laws to recover money supposedly stolen by former Italian colonists, to which was appended an additional law claiming the property of Libyan Jews (called "Israelis").

In the Name of the People
The Revolutionary Command Council

In view of the constitutional notice dated 2 Shawal 1389, corresponding to December 11, 1969, and law no. 6 of 1961 making the assets of certain Israelis subject to sequestration...

Article 1. The funds and properties of the persons subject to the sequestration provided for law no. 6, of 1961 and law no. 57 of 1970 and whose names are listed in the attachment shall be restituted to the state....

The Revolutionary Command Council: /s/ Qadhdhafi, Mch. Magareif, Abdussalam Gallud, Moh. Gedei, Dr. Giuna Scriha, Moh. Rabihi. Promulgated on 18 Gemadi 1390, corresponding to July 31, 1970

Denial of Teaching of Hebrew in the Soviet Union (1971-1972)
The following correspondence between members of the Jewish community and Soviet authorities, as well as and articles in Soviet press, demonstrate that Soviet authorities forbade the teaching of Hebrew.

December 14, 1971:
To your letter in the matter of engaging in private teaching practice (teaching of the Hebrew language), the Moscow Municipal Finance Department informs you that the teaching of one or another language on the territory of the USSR is provided for by the study program which is established by the Ministry of Education of the USSR.

The teaching of the Hebrew language is not provided for by this program. In connection with this, engagement in private practice for teaching of this language is inadmissible. For permission for the right to teach the above-mentioned language, you should apply to the Ministry of Education of the USSR.
signature Soboleva
Dep. Head of State Income Section
signature Loginov

January 7, 1972:
To the Minister of Cultural Furtseva E.A.
To the Director of the Office for the Export and Import of Books, "KNIGOEKSPORT"
To the Director of the Central Agency "SOYUZPECHAT" for foreign publications
From: Roginsky Vladmir Isaakovich
Moscow, 117415, Lobachevsky St, 48/87, apt. 16

I am a Jew and I have the natural desire to read books, magazines and newspapers in my national language–Hebrew. I would like to have a home library of literature in Hebrew, just as in every Russian family there is a home library of Russian literature.

In connection with this I beg you to inform me:
Where and how can I buy books in Hebrew?
Where and how can I subscribe or regularly purchase magazines and newspapers in Hebrew?

January 14, 1972:
USSR Ministry of Communication
Central Agency "SOYUZPECHAT" for foreign publications
Moscow 1-11-, Bezbozhny Per. 19, block 16,
To: Com. Roginsky V.I.,

Dear Com. Roginsky,

"Soyuzpechat" does not receive foreign literature in the Hebrew language.

Deputy Director of the Agency
(Mitkevich E.) Signature
Moscow Municipal Council of the Workers'
103031 Moscow, Kuznetsky Bridge 16,
Tel. 228-45-24

June 12, 1972:
To your letter, sent by the Procurator's Office of the Cheremushkins Region concerning the Income received by you from giving private lessons to citizens in the Hebrew language and concerning registering you in connection with this as a payer of income tax, the Moscow Municipal Finance Administration informs you of the following: as it is known in our country Hebrew is not taught in government higher and intermediate institutes of learning or in general–education schools and, for this reason, has no state significance.

In addition you do not have the profession of a teacher of the abovementioned language and the legislation permits only teaching practice. Under these conditions the Cheremushkinsk Regional Finance Section cannot register you for payment of income tax.

Dep. Head of Administration, (P.P. Stefansky)
Dep. Head of State Income Section,(A.B. Loginov)

Reactions to Hebrew Teaching in the Soviet Press Izvestia December 24, 1976:

The Soviet public cannot accept that the Jewish nationalists want to use the Hebrew study groups for the propaganda of Zionist ideology, for the cultivation of the spirit of national exclusivity and of open racism.

Literaturnaya Gazeta February 8, 1978:

The [Hebrew] language, exhumed from Talmudic texts, has not yet become an effective instrument of literary and scientific creativity.

Policies and Statements of Prime Minister of Malaysia
Mohammed Mahahtir routinely has made antisemitic statements calling Jews "hooked-nose" speculators who "understand money instinctively." These attacks have been made even though no more than a few dozen Jews live in Malaysia.

1984 A visiting orchestra was banned because it was scheduled to play the music of Jewish composer Ernst Bloch.

1986 Mahatir informed the Non-Aligned Summit Conference in Zimbabwe that "the expulsion of Jews from the Holy Land 2000 years ago and the Nazi oppression of the Jews have taught them nothing. If at all, it has transformed the Jews into the monsters that they condemn so roundly in their propaganda material. They have been apt pupils of the late Dr. Goebbels...And incidentally we are Muslims, and the Jews are not happy to see the Muslims progress. The Jews robbed the Palestinians of everything, but in Malaysia they could not do so, hence they do this, depress the ringgit."

Bombing of Argentina Jewish Communal Building (1994)
In 1994, a bomb attack against the AMIA building, the Argentine Jewish community's central body, killed 85 people. (A previous terrorist attack in 1992 killed 29 at the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires.) Investigations into the bombing of the AMIA building have revealed likely complicity and involvement of local police officers. Among the arrested was the head of the provincial police force's grand auto theft division and a close advisor to the provincial police chief. Buenos Aires police also have been accused of Jewish cemetery desecration and an attempted bombing. Responding to the lack of progress of the investigation, the UN's Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in 1997 urged Argentina "to take all measures within its power to expedite the ongoing proceedings in connection with the 1992 and 1994 antisemitic attacks." The trial of the police officers is scheduled to begin in September 2001.

Blood Libel "Documentary" in Belarus (1997)
The "blood libel" accuses Jews of murdering Christians for ritual purposes. It has lasted from medieval times to the present day. State television of Belarus broadcast a "documentary" that included a 17th century "blood libel" story. The airing of the film coincided with the celebration of the saint's day of the Belarussian Orthodox Church, to which the majority of the population belongs.

Textbooks in Slovakia (April 1997) |
The Slovak Ministry of Education distributed to teachers 90,000 copies of The History of Slovakia and Slovaks, which minimizes Jewish suffering during the Holocaust. The book also claims that Jews were well treated in the concentration camps and that they fared better than the average Slovak during the war. In a section of another textbook, Literature for Grade 5, students are taught a version of the story of Jesus that has been repudiated by the Catholic Church:

By [Jesus's] teaching, he upset the Jewish religious officials, who asked the Roman prosecutor Pontius Pilate to sentence Jesus to death. However, Pilate found him innocent and wanted to release him. The crowd requested his death yet and thus had him crucified.

Palestinian Authority Television (October 13, 2000)
The following excerpt is from a sermon by Dr. Ahmad Abu Halabiya, member of the Palestinian Authority Fatwa Council. It was broadcast over official Palestinian Authority Television.

Have no mercy on the Jews, no matter where they are, in any country. Fight them, wherever you are. Wherever you meet them, kill them. Wherever you are, kill those Jews and those Americans who are like them–and those who stand by them–they are all in one trench, against the Arabs and the Muslims–because they established Israel here, in the beating heart of the Arab world, in Palestine. They created it to be the outpost of their civilization–and the vanguard of their army, and to be the sword of the West and the crusaders, hanging over the necks of the monotheists, the Muslims in these lands. They wanted the Jews to be their spearheads....

Political Discrimination in Yemen (February 2001)
Yemen officials recently blocked a Jew from running for political office, according to a report from Agence France Presse, reported below in the Jewish Telegraphic Agency.

Jerusalem (JTA) Officials in Yemen rejected the candidacy of a Jewish man who wanted to run in the nation's Feb. 20 official elections, according to Agence France Press.

Yemen's election committee "rejected Ezer Ibrahim's application because he is a Jew, and municipal law stipulates that election candidates should be Muslims," a committee official told the French news agency.

Had his candidacy been upheld, he would have been the first Jew to run for political office in Yemen. Some 600 Jews live in that country.

Excerpts from Government Sponsored Newspaper, Al-Akhbar, in Egypt (2001)
Egypt's government-sponsored Al-Akhbar newspaper often prints articles and cartoons that denigrate Jews and trivialize the Holocaust. Examples follow:

The American Secretary of State did not hesitate to demonstrate humiliation and submission when he recently visited Israel; he stood humble, a Jewish yarmulke on his head, in front of the memorial of the false Holocaust of the Jews in WWII.... Certainly this cursed yarmulke causes whoever wears it to lose his righteousness, to forget justice, and to free himself of any wisdom or logic. February 27, 2001

...for the second time, thanks to Hitler, of blessed memory, who on behalf of the Palestinians, revenged in advance, against the most vile criminals on the face of this earth. Although we do have a complaint against him for his revenge was not enough. (April 25, 2001)

Speech of Syrian President Welcoming Pope John Paul II (May 2001)
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad made the following statements at a ceremony welcoming Pope John Paul II to Syria on May 5, 2001

...there are those who persist in keeping mankind on the path of the agony and torture [suffered by Jesus] . . . We witness [Israelis] murdering the principle of equality by claiming that God singled them out and desecrating the holy places of Islam and Christianity in Palestine. . . They are trying to damage and destroy all the principles of the monotheistic religions with the same mentality that led them to betray and torture Jesus and with the same mentality that led them to kill the prophet Muhammad.

The Syrian Minister of Defense on May 5, 2001 stated on LBC television that "if every Arab killed a Jew, no Jews would remain."

Date: 5/20/2005 12:00:00 AM

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