Hezbollah Activities in Europe

Hezbollah Activities in Europe


Yehudit Barsky



Hezbollah was created by Iran in 1982 as an offensive to aggressively export the late Ayatollah Khomeini’s “Islamic Revolution” among Shiites in Lebanon, Arab countries and throughout Muslim immigrant communities in Europe. Implementing Khomeini’s anti-Western stance, Hezbollah made its mark carrying out its earliest terrorist acts by attacking Westerners and Israelis in Lebanon. By the mid-1980s Hezbollah terrorist operatives established a presence in Europe and coordinated attacks with Hezbollah in Lebanon. Since the mid-1990s Hezbollah has focused increasingly on Europe as a convenient launching pad for terrorist attacks within Israel. Europe’s close proximity to Israel enables Hezbollah to infiltrate Israel by sending operatives from Lebanon, carrying European passports, through European international airports to Israel. The operatives are sent to conduct espionage, identify potential targets, and carry out attacks.


Hezbollah also views Europe as a base for fundraising. Taking advantage of the special nonprofit status afforded charitable organizations in European countries, Hezbollah has used Europe-based nonprofit front organizations to funnel money from Hezbollah supporters in Europe to Hezbollah in Lebanon.  Europe is also a transit point for Hezbollah money derived from drug trafficking and money laundering.


Recently Hezbollah has ramped up its activities aimed at carrying out attacks on diplomatic and civilian targets in Europe and other parts of the world. Operatives have targeted Israeli, U.S. and UK diplomatic installations for surveillance in preparation for planning attacks. In a number of cases, advanced plans for imminent attacks were thwarted by local police in cooperation with international intelligence agencies. Most recently, one such attack was barely averted in Cyprus, but another, a suicide bombing in Bulgaria, killed Israeli tourists.


Despite the clear evidence of such activities, the great majority of European Union countries will not designate Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. Following a renewed request by Israel in July to ban Hezbollah, EU president Erato Kozakou-Marcoullis, foreign minister of Cyprus, stated, “There is no consensus for putting Hezbollah on the list of terrorist organizations.”[1] 


Thus far the only European country to designate Hezbollah as a terrorist organization is the Netherlands. According to its intelligence services, “Hezbollah’s political and terrorist activities are controlled by one co-coordinating council,” signifying “that there is indeed a link between these parts of the organization.”


Hezbollah since its inception has demonstrated that it employs all sectors of its organization, including its so-called political wing and charitable organizations in Lebanon and abroad to recruit, indoctrinate, and train its followers. Hezbollah institutions perceived as nonviolent have been shown repeatedly to be involved with the radicalization process that creates terrorist operatives. The fiction that Hezbollah is not entirely involved with terrorism has given the organization and its patron, Iran, the opportunity to build an infrastructure throughout Europe, increasing security risks on the continent and elsewhere.


Europe as a Launching Pad for Terror

The first clear evidence that Hezbollah in Europe was using Europe as a launching pad for terrorist attacks came in April 1996, when Hussein Mikdad, a Lebanese Hezbollah operative, flew from Zurich, Switzerland, to Israel using a stolen UK passport. He was reportedly constructing an explosive device in a hotel room in Jerusalem when it exploded, severely injuring him, and causing the loss of both his legs and one of his hands. [2]


Another example was a young German homegrown Hezbollah recruit from Braunschweig named Stephan Josef Smyrek who converted to Islam in 1993. [3] Smyrek sought contact with Hezbollah in Germany, and found two operatives who recruited him and helped him connect with Hezbollah in Lebanon in 1996. In August 1997, Smyrek travelled to Lebanon for training in the use of explosives, light arms and other weapons. On November 28 of that year Smyrek was arrested at Israel’s Ben Gurion Airport carrying $4,000, a video camera and a map of Israel, all provided by Hezbollah. He was reported to be planning a suicide bombing. [4]  Smyrek was convicted of being a member of Hezbollah and of aiding and abetting Hezbollah by collecting information for it. [5]


In October 2000, Fawzi Ayoub, a senior Hezbollah operative with Canadian citizenship who had a long record of involvement in terrorist activities, travelled from Lebanon to Europe.  Using a forged U.S. passport under the name “Frank Mariano Boschi,” he went from Greece to Israel by boat. [6] Sent by Hezbollah to conduct a bombing in Israel, he was arrested while seeking to find bomb components in June 2002. [7] Ayoub was released in a prisoner exchange in 2004. He was indicted in 2009 in the U.S. for using a falsified U.S. passport in order to carry out a bombing on behalf of Hezbollah, and is currently on the FBI’s Most Wanted Terrorists list.[8]


In January 2001, a Lebanese Hezbollah operative named Jihad Aya Latif Shuman, a.k.a. “Gerard Shuman,” was arrested in Jerusalem by Israeli police. Shuman, a UK citizen,[9] had entered Israel using his UK passport. Following his arrest, he admitted to being a Hezbollah operative and that he was sent to Israel to carry out terrorist attacks.[10]


Beginning in 2002, Khaled Kashkush, an Israeli Arab medical student studying in Germany, regularly met with Dr. Hisham Hassan, director of Orphaned Children Project Lebanon, a Hezbollah-affiliated charitable organization in Germany. In 2005 Hassan introduced Kashkush to Muhammad Hashem, a Hezbollah senior handler.[11]  Hashem asked Kashkush to provide information on Israelis who could potentially be recruited to Hezbollah. He also directed Kashkush to get a job at an Israeli hospital in order to collect intelligence information on members of Israel’s military and security forces. Kashkush received 13,000 euros for his activities on behalf of Hezbollah, and was arrested upon arrival at Israel’s Ben Gurion Airport in July 2008.[12] 



Hezbollah has employed narcoterrorism by using the proceeds of drug money for a significant part of its funding in Lebanon since the 1980s. Hezbollah’s main narcotics trafficking route until the late 1990s was focused on the Mediterranean. Delivery of heroin from Lebanon and Syria was made to European mafia groups, which would distribute it throughout Western Europe, with the proceeds funneled back to Hezbollah in Lebanon.[13] In recent years, Hezbollah has increasingly used Europe as a delivery point for cocaine from South America, brought to Europe via Caribbean and Libyan routes.[14] Funds from the sale of cocaine have similarly been transferred via Europe to Lebanon to fund Hezbollah.


In 2008, the German newsmagazine Der Spiegel reported that German police discovered 8.7 million euros in the luggage of four Lebanese men at Frankfurt airport. An additional 500,000 euros were found in their apartment in Speyer. The money contained traces of cocaine. A year later, German police arrested two Lebanese men who had transferred large sums of money to Lebanese relatives connected to Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah and the Hezbollah leadership. [15] The men were suspected of selling cocaine in Europe and transferring the proceeds from Frankfurt back to Hezbollah in Beirut. [16]


In December 2011, the U.S. indicted Ayman Joumaa, a Hezbollah financier and Lebanese drug trafficker, with heading a money-laundering and narcotics smuggling network that transported tons of cocaine from South America to the U.S., Africa and Europe.[17] Hezbollah received funds laundered by Joumaa and his associates, transferred via Lebanese exchange houses and the Lebanese Canadian Bank, a now defunct financial institution linked to Hezbollah.[18]



Survey of Hezbollah Activities in Europe



Following its departure from Athens on June 14, 1985, TWA flight 847 was hijacked and its 153 passengers taken hostage and beaten by Hezbollah terrorists Muhammad Ali Hamadi and Hassan Iz Al-Din.[19] The pilot was forced to fly from Athens to Algiers, from there to Beirut, back to Algiers and again to Beirut. During the first stop in Beirut, one passenger, U.S. Navy diver Robert Dean Stethem, was murdered. In addition to their list of other demands, the hijackers threatened to kill eight Greek hostages unless their associate, Hezbollah terrorist Ali Atwa, was released by the Greek government. Atwa, who assisted their hijacking preparations, had been arrested at Athens airport. The Greek government released Atwa and flew him to meet the hijacked plane on its second stop in Algiers.[20] Three of the Greek hostages were released. Another 104 hostages were released during the plane’s stopovers in Beirut and Algiers.


During the ordeal, Hamadi and Al-Din demanded that a flight crew member help them select passengers with Jewish sounding names. She refused. In Beirut four of the remaining 39 hostages were singled out by the hijackers for their Jewish-sounding names and held separately. The hostages were released in Syria on June 30. [21]








Hezbollah has had members in Germany since the establishment of the organization in 1982. The German government reported in 2011 that 950 members and supporters of Hezbollah were operating within Germany.[22]


From 1985 to 1990 Hezbollah targeted Westerners living in Lebanon, including German citizens, by kidnapping them and holding them hostage.


On January 13, 1987, Hezbollah terrorist Muhammad Ali Hamadi was arrested upon his arrival in Frankfurt airport from Lebanon for carrying liquid explosives in his luggage.[23] Hamadi had previously carried out the hijacking of TWA flight 847 in June 1985. Within days, Hezbollah kidnapped and threatened to kill two German citizens in Beirut if Hamadi were extradited to the U.S. Hamadi was tried in Germany in 1989 and sentenced to life in prison with the possibility of parole. In 2005 he was freed by a German parole board after serving almost 19 years, and sent back to Lebanon.[24]


On January 28, 1987, his older brother, Abbas Ali Hamadi, also a Hezbollah terrorist, was arrested in Frankfurt airport after arriving from Lebanon. Five gallons of liquid explosives were found near Hamadi’s home in Saarland, Germany.[25] On April 19, 1988, a German court tried and convicted him for assisting in the abduction of the two German citizens in Beirut and illegal possession of explosives. He was sentenced to 13 years in prison.[26] In 1993 he was released early after serving over 5 years of his sentence and sent back to Lebanon.[27]


In 1989, a Hezbollah operative named Bassam Gharib Makki surveilled U.S. and Israeli sites in Germany in order to identify targets for terrorist attacks.[28]


In 2002, the German government closed down the Al-Shahid Social Relief Institution[29] and the Al-Aqsa Educational Foundation, both charitable organizations that raised funds for Hezbollah.[30]


In January 2005 a German court ruled in favor of deporting a Hezbollah activist who had been living in Germany on the grounds that the organization carries out attacks against Israel that are “brutally contemptuous of human life.” The court stated that the fact that the EU had not listed Hezbollah as a terrorist organization was irrelevant to the case.[31]


Following the recent attack against Israeli tourists in Bulgaria, Philipp Missfelder, the foreign policy spokesman for German chancellor Angela Merkel, said: “It is long overdue to place Hezbollah on the EU’s list of terror organizations.” Missfelder explained that Hezbollah “threatens the security of our alliance partner Israel and is involved in countless terror activities and receives protection from the Iranian regime.” He continued, “The EU should not allow any more time to elapse” before designating Hezbollah a terrorist organization, since “an organization that agitates against our friends in Israel cannot be accepted in Europe.”[32]



Hezbollah’s first attack against France was carried out against a French peacekeeping force operating in Beirut, Lebanon. In October 1983, a Hezbollah suicide bomber driving a truck bomb killed 58 paratroopers from France’s 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment, part of the Multinational Forces Command on an international peacekeeping mission.


From 1985 to 1990 Hezbollah targeted Westerners living in Lebanon, including French citizens, by kidnapping them and holding them hostage. In parallel to the kidnappings in Lebanon, from December 7, 1985 through September 17, 1986, Hezbollah carried out a wave of 15 bombing attacks in Paris,[33] killing 13 people and injuring 250.[34] The cell carrying out these attacks was led by Fouad Ali Saleh, a Sunni Muslim Tunisian who converted to Shiite Islam, was recruited by Iran, and received explosives and direction from Hezbollah operatives.[35]


In December 2004, France’s Council of State banned Eutelsat, a France-based satellite television company, from broadcasting Al-Manar, Hezbollah’s official television station. The ban was enacted because Al-Manar violated an agreement that it would not broadcast content that might incite hatred or violence.[36]



In April 1985, a bomb went off at a restaurant near the joint U.S.-Spanish Torrejon de Ardoz airbase that was frequented by U.S. service personnel. Eighteen Spanish citizens were killed and 82 others injured.[37] Hezbollah claimed responsibility for the attack in a telephone call to the Reuters news agency in Beirut.[38]


In November 1989, Spanish police arrested Hezbollah operatives who were attempting to smuggle 440 pounds of plastic explosives inside a 19-ton shipment of canned goods from Lebanon into Madrid and Valencia, Spain. The explosives were reportedly intended for attacks in France[39] and U.S. targets in Europe.[40]


In 2004 Spain banned Al-Manar from broadcasting to Latin America.



In August 2008, Rawi Fouad Sultani met a Hezbollah operative named Salman Harb at a youth camp in Morocco. Sultani told Harb that he worked out at the same gym as Lieutenant General Gabi Ashkenazi, who was then Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces. Harb asked Sultani to remain in contact, and later that year invited him to visit Poland.


That December, Sultani went to Poland, where he met Harb’s brother, Sami, a Hezbollah handler. During the meeting, Sami Harb requested that Sultani provide information on Israeli military bases and soldiers. He also asked for information about Chief of Staff Ashkenazi, the location of the gym, its security arrangements, and details about Ashkenazi’s security detail. At another meeting before Sultani left Poland, Harb provided him with an activated email address and a CD with encryption software in order to communicate.[41] Sultani maintained contact with Harb following his return to Israel. He was arrested in August 2009 and charged with making contact with a foreign agent and conspiring to pass information to an enemy.[42]



In July 2004, Iyad Khaled Muhammad Al-Shua, a Danish citizen of Lebanese descent, visited his brother in Lebanon. The brother introduced him to a Hezbollah operative named Abu Ahmed, who asked Al-Shua to assist Hezbollah by travelling to Israel to survey potential military targets and to recruit Israeli Arabs. After Al-Shua’s return to Denmark, his brother contacted him and asked if he would take on the Hezbollah mission, to which he agreed. Rassan, another Hezbollah operative who claimed to be Abu Ahmed’s brother, travelled to Denmark to visit Al-Shua and delivered $2,000 to cover his expenses. Al-Shua was directed to obtain a new passport for the trip.[43]


On December 29, 2004, Al-Shua flew to Israel and went to the northern Galilee town of Tarshiha to see his uncle. He asked the uncle to help him by renting a car so that he could drive to the Golan Heights to find military bases.[44] Al-Shua was arrested in January 6, 2005, after he was caught filming military installations while travelling on a train from Acre to Tel Aviv. He reportedly admitted that Hezbollah sent him to collect intelligence information, locate military installations and recruit Israeli Arabs to assist Hezbollah.[45]


United Kingdom:

From 1985 to 1990 Hezbollah targeted Westerners living in Lebanon, including UK citizens, by kidnapping them and holding them hostage.


On September 8, 2006, the U.S. Treasury Department designated Bank Saderat PLC, the UK subsidiary of an Iranian bank, as a supporter of Hezbollah terrorism. The bank had been used to transfer $50 million from Iran to Hezbollah between 2001 and 2006.[46] In July 2010, the UK Treasury included Bank Saderat PLC as a “designated person” on its Treasury sanctions list subject to “financial measures taken against Iran.”[47]



On May 11, 1988, a Hezbollah operative named Omar Hawillo was arrested following a failed attempt to use a remote control device to detonate a car bomb driven by another Hezbollah operative in front of Israel’s Nicosia embassy. [48]


In 1997, Hezbollah was discovered collecting intelligence information on the U.S. embassy in Nicosia. [49]


On July 7, 2012, an as yet unnamed Lebanese national who Cypriot investigators have linked to Hezbollah[50]was arrested in Limassol, Cyprus, on suspicion of planning terrorist attacks against Israeli targets. He had been traveling from the UK on a Swedish passport, and was trying to collect intelligence on the movements of Israeli tourists visiting Cyprus. The man told investigators that he initially intended to carry out an armed attack on the Israeli embassy in Nicosia, but was deterred after observing the security measures at the building. He subsequently focused on plans to blow up an El Al plane and attack tour buses frequented by Israeli tourists.  In his hotel room investigators found information on Cypriot tour bus companies catering to Israeli tourists, details of Israeli airline flight schedules and photographs of Cyprus tourist destinations popular with Israelis.[51]



On July 18, 2012, a suicide bomber who was later identified by US officials as a Hezbollah operative detonated a bomb on a tour bus transporting Israelis at Bourgas airport.[52] Five Israelis and the Bulgarian bus driver were killed, and 32 Israelis were injured. Two months before the attack, Israeli officials reported a significant increase in calls between Burgas and Lebanon. The volume of the calls increased further in the three days prior to the attack.[53]  As part of the ongoing investigation, Bulgarian security officials recently requested assistance from Interpol to identify a man believed to be an accomplice in the Burgas bombing.[54] 






Survey of EU Countries’ Stances on Banning Hezbollah



EU Member Country

Designated Hezbollah as Terrorist Organization

Designated only Hezbollah’s “External Security Organization” as Terrorist Organization

Banned only Hezbollah’s Al-Manar TV station

No action to designate





















Czech Republic






















































































































Yehudit Barsky is director of AJC's Division on Middle East and International Terrorism.

[1] “EU refuses Israeli request to blacklist Hezbollah,” France24.com, July 24, 2012; http://www.france24.com/en/20120724-eu-refuses-israeli-request-blacklist-hezbollah

[2] “The Accountant is a Terrorist,” New York Times, November 10, 1996; http://www.nytimes.com/1996/11/10/magazine/the-accountant-is-a-terrorist.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

[3]Smyrek convicted of collecting information for Hezbollah,” Jerusalem Post, August 18, 1999; “Suicide Bombing Linked to Hezbollah, Associated Press, December 26, 1997; German citizen sentenced to 10 years for aiding Lebanese militants,” Associated Press, August 19, 1999.

[4] “Suicide Bombing Linked to Hezbollah,” Associated Press, December 26, 1997.

[5] “German citizen sentenced to 10 years for aiding Lebanese militants,” Associated Press, August 19,1999.

[6] Bell, Stewart. Cold Terror: How Canada Nurtures and Exports Terrorism Around the World, Canada: John Wiley and Sons, 2007. Print. p. 109.

[7] “Iranian activities in support of the Palestinian intifada,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, January 30, 2003;  http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2003/1/Iranian%20activities%20in%20support%20of%20the%20Palestinian%20i; Stewart Bell, Cold Terror: How Canada Nurtures and Exports Terrorism Around the World, John Wiley and Sons, 2007, p. 109; “Hezbollah terrorists capable and growing presence,” National Post website, July 20 2012, http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/07/20/analysis-hezbollah-terrorists-a-capable-and-growing-presence/ 

[8] “Most Wanted Terrorists - Faouzi Mohamad Ayoub,” FBI website, no date; http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/wanted_terrorists/faouzi-mohamad-ayoub/view

[9] “The infiltration of Jihad Shuman,” Yoram Schweitzer, International Institute for Counterterrorism website, February 22, 2001.

[10] “Details of Arrest of Jihad Shuman,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, February 21, 2001; http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Communiques/2001/Details%20of%20Arrest%20of%20Jihad%20Shuman%20-%2021-Feb-2001

[11] “Arrest of Hezbollah agent from Kalansua,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, August 6, 2008; http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-+Obstacle+to+Peace/Terrorism+from+Lebanon-+Hizbullah/Arrest%20of%20Hizbullah%20agent%20from%20Kalansua%206-Aug-2008

[12] “Arrest of Hezbollah agent from Kalansua,” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, August 6, 2008.

[13] “A Global Overview of Narcotics Funded Terrorist and Other Extremist Groups,” Leverle Berry et al, Library of Congress Federal Research Division, May 2002;  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/NarcsFundedTerrs_Extrems.pdf

[14] “A Global Overview of Narcotics Funded Terrorist and Other Extremist Groups,” Leverle Berry et al, Library of Congress Federal Research Division, May 2002;  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/NarcsFundedTerrs_Extrems.pdf

[15] “Hezbollah funded by drug trade,” Ynetnews.com, January 8, 2010; http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3831853,00.html

[16] “Germans trace Hezbollah coke smuggling profits,” The Local.de, January 9, 2010; http://www.thelocal.de/national/20100109-24465.html

[17] “Government says Hezbollah profits from US cocaine market via link to Mexican cartel,” ProPublica.org, December 13, 2011;  http://www.propublica.org/article/government-says-hezbollah-profits-from-us-cocaine-market-via-link-to-mexica

[18] “Lebanese Drug Lord Charged in US: Links to Zetas and Hezbollah,” ABC News, December 13, 2011: http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2011/12/lebanese-drug-lord-charged-in-us-links-to-zetas-and-hezbollah/

[19] “Most Wanted Terrorists – Hassan Izz Al-Din,” FBI website, no date; http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/wanted_terrorists/hasan-izz-al-din

[20] “Terror Aboard Flight 847, Time.com; June 24, 2001;  http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,142099,00.html

[21] Mickolus, Edward M. et al., International Terrorism in the 1980s: A Chronology of Events, vol. 2, Ames, Iowa: Iowa University Press, pp. 219-225. Print.

[22] “Despite Alarm by US, Europe Lets Hezbollah Operate Openly,” New York Times, August 15, 2012; http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/16/world/europe/hezbollah-banned-in-us-operates-in-europes-public-eye.html?pagewanted=all

[23] “Passengers see accused hijacker of TWA flight,” Philadelphia Inquirer, June 16, 1987;  http://articles.philly.com/1987-06-16/news/26182251_1_mohammed-ali-hamadei-hijacking-robert-dean-stethem

[24] “Hijacker sought by US released,” WashingtonPost.com, December 21, 2005; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/20/AR2005122001615.html

[25] “Bonn gets photos and message that captives are healthy; West German police find explosive buried near home of suspect,” Washington Post,  January 29, 1987.

[26] “Lebanese held by West Germany convicted in Beirut hostage case,” New York Times, April 20, 1988.

[27] “Convicted Lebanese kidnapper released early by Germany,” Washington Post, August 7, 1993.

[29] Azani, Eitan. Hezbollah: The Story of the Party of God. New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2009. Print. p. 206.

[30] Eitan Azani, “Hezbollah: A Pragmatic Terror Organization of Global Reach – A Snapshot,” International Institute for Counterterrorism, February 2005; http://www.ict.org.il/Articles/tabid/66/Articlsid/192/Default.aspx

[31] “Hachlatat bet mishpat Germani legaresh mishetach Germaniya pa’il Hezbollah beshel heyot Hezbollah irgun teror hamezalzel beofen brutali bechaye benei adam,” Hamerkaz lemoreshet modi’in, merkaz hameyda lemodi’in uleteror website, January 13, 2005; http://web.archive.org/web/20050213014924/http://intelligence.org.il/sp/1_05/german_c.htm

[32] “Top German politician calls for EU to ban Hezbollah,” Jerusalem Post, August 23, 2012; http://www.jpost.com/International/Article.aspx?id=282357

[33] “Anatomy of a Middle Eastern terrorist network,” Guardian Weekly, February 11, 1990.

[34] “Bombing suspect expelled from trial,” The Independent, January 30, 1990.

[35] “The Hezbollah Terror Trial in France: a Mednews special report,” Mednews Middle East Defense News, January 19, 1990.

[36] “France pulls plug on Arab network,” BBC News, December 14, 2004; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4093579.stm

[37] “Islamic Jihad Bomb Claim Believed,” Reuters, April 15, 1985.

[38] “Restaurant Near US Air Base Bombed,” Facts on File World News Digest, May 3, 1985.

[39] “US, France warn of possible holiday terror attacks,” Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1989.

[40]Police Arrest Eight Suspected Terrorists, Seize Explosives,” Associated Press, November 26, 1989.

[41] “Man accused of spying on chief of staff for Hezbollah,” Ynetnews.com, August 31, 2009;  http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3769627,00.html

[42] “Arab jailed for spying on IDF chief,” Jerusalem Post, April 7, 2010; http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?id=172466

[43]Michael Tarnby Jensen, “Jihad in Denmark: An Overview and Analysis of Jihadi Activity in Denmark 1990-2006;” Danish Institute for International Affairs, DIIS Working Paper no 2006/35, p. 39; http://www.diis.dk/graphics/publications/wp2006/wp%202006-35%20til%20web.pdf

[44] “Suspected Danish Hezbollah spy says he confessed under duress,” Jerusalem Post, April 21, 2005

[45] “Israel arrests Danish Hezbollah spy,” UPI, January 26, 2005.

[46] “Treasury Cuts Iran’s Bank Saderat Off From US Banking System,” US Department of the Treasury website, September 8, 2006; http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-releases/Pages/hp87.aspx  

[47] “Supplement to notification on Iran of 27 July 2010: Bank Saderat Iran, its branches and subsidiary Bank Saderat PLC, Persia International Bank PLC,” HM Treasury website, July 27, 2010; http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/fin_sanctions_iran_supplement_270710.pdf

[48] “Islamic terrorist sentenced to 15 years,” Associated Press, July 18, 1988; http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1988/Islamic-Terrorist-Sentenced-To-15-Years/id-4fc9f1f1f696513eb2d4e6327d256ae3

[49] “Hezbollah: A Case of Global Reach,” Matthew Levitt, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, September 8, 2003; http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/hezbollah-a-case-study-of-global-reach

[50] “Terrorist plotting against Israel caught,” UPI, July 15, 2012.

[51] “Cyprus daily says arrested anti-Israel terror suspect arrived via UK,” BBC Monitoring Political, BBC Worldwide Monitoring, July 17, 2012.

[52] “Hezbollah is blamed for attack on Israeli tourists in Bulgaria,” New York Times, July 19, 2012;


[54] “INTERPOL publishes images of alleged bus bombing accomplice at request of Bulgaria,” INTERPOL website, August 30, 2012, http://www.interpol.int/News-and-media/News-media-releases/2012/PR067

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