by William Korey

1. UN Press Release, SG/SM/6539, Oct. 15, 1997, p. 3. Several months earlier, Annan officially attended an unveiling in London of a monument to Wallenberg. The UN secretary-general had a personal interest in Wallenberg, as Raoul was the uncle of Annan’s wife, a point he made in his speech.

2. The comments of Wiesel are on the back cover of Kati Marton, Wallenberg: Missing Hero (New York: Arcade Publishing, 1995). The book was first published by Random House in New York in 1982.

3. Per Anger, "Afterword," in Harvey Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, rev. ed. (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1995), p. 222. The "Afterword" was written in January 1981. Anger served with Wallenberg in the Swedish legation in Budapest. Later, he became a top-level Swedish ambassador and Foreign Ministry official.

4. Ibid., pp. 33-34.

5. Ibid., p. 30.

6. Ibid., p. 35.

7. Ibid., p. 43.

8. Elenore Lester and Frederick E. Werbell, "The Lost Hero of the Holocaust: The Search for Sweden’s Raoul Wallenberg," The New York Times Magazine, Mar. 30, 1980, pp. 20-28, 32-39, 62-63. This article was inserted by Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan into the Congressional Record - Senate, Apr. 10, 1980, pp. S3782-3785.

9. Marton, Wallenberg, p. 111.

10. Ibid., pp. 110-11.

11. Ibid., p. 97.

12. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 37.

13. Ibid., p. 41.

14. Ibid., p. 39.

15. Lester and Werbell, "Lost Hero of the Holocaust."

16. Ibid.

17. Elenore Lester, Wallenberg: The Man in the Iron Web (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall,1982), p. 9.

18. Marton, Wallenberg, pp. 142-43.

19. John Bierman, Righteous Gentile: The Story of Raoul Wallenberg, Missing Hero of the Holocaust (New York: Viking Press, 1981), pp. 117-19.

20. Ibid., p. 117.

21. The document is to be found in Marvin Makinen, The Search for Raoul Wallenberg (Chicago: n. p., June 30, 1994), mimeo, Appendix II, p. 36. In part, the Makinen document was an appeal for funds to conduct further research.

22. Ibid., p. 37.

23. Marton, Wallenberg, p. 158.

24. Esther Fein, "Soviets Show Wallenberg’s Jail Card," New York Times, Oct. 21, 1989, p. 3.

25. For the significance of the U.S. War Refugee Board, see William Korey, "The Case of Raoul Wallenberg," Freedom Review, no. 4 (July-August 1994): 41-43.

26. Bierman, Righteous Gentile, pp. 31-37

27. David E. Murphy, Sergei A. Kondrashin, and George Bailey, Battleground Berlin: CIA vs. KGB in the Cold War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), p. 4.

28. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 26. Also see Bierman, Righteous Gentile, pp. 32-33.

29. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 27.

30. Bierman, Righteous Gentile, p. 34.

31. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 28.

32. Bierman, Rightous Gentile, pp. 21-25.

33. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 64.

34. Marton, Wallenberg, p. 96.

35. The letter, dated June 15, 1945, is in Raoul Wallenberg: Letters and Dispatches, 1924-1944 (New York: Arcade Publishing, 1994), pp. 268-70.

36. Bierman, Rightous Gentile, p. 189.

37. Serge Schmemann, "Soviet Files Show K.G.B. Cover-up in the Disappearance of Wallenberg," New York Times, Dec. 28, 1991, p. 6.

38. Ibid.

39. David Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? (Winnipeg, Manitoba: n. p., Sept. 8, 1998), p. 12. This study was privately printed.

40. Bierman, Righteous Gentile, p. 124.

41. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 112.

42. Marton, Wallenberg, p. 160.

43. Bierman, Righteous Gentile, p. 124.

44. Ibid.

45. Ibid., p. 127.

46. Ibid., pp. 127-30.

47. The communication was to John Pehle, director of the War Refugee Board in Washington. It is cited in an article in Dagens Nyheter, July 17, 1997, written by Suzanne Berger, an independent journalist working in Washington who has done considerable research on the Wallenberg case. She shared her English translation of the article with the author.

48. Another article by Suzanne Berger, published ibid., May 11, 1997.

49. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 145.

50. Ibid.

51. Berger’s article in Dagens Nyheter, May 11, 1997.

52. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 148.

53. Ibid., pp. 148-49.

54. Ibid., p. 148.

55. Makinen, Search for Raoul Wallenberg, p. 43.

56. Ibid.

57. Bierman, Righteous Gentile, p. 135.

58. This document, an exact copy of the original, was made available to the author by a Wallenberg researcher in Budapest, Maria Ember, on Dec. 10, 1993. It had been originally given by the Swedish Foreign Ministry to the organizers of an exhibition on Raoul Wallenberg held in Budapest in 1992.

59. Vadim Birstein, Secret Cell Number Seven: The Mysterious Fate of an "Extremely Important Prisoner" (New York: n.p., 1991), mimeo. Birstein made this privately produced document available to the author. A shorter version appeared in the independent Soviet newspaper Nezavisimaia Gazeta, Apr. 25, 1991.

60. Bierman, Righteous Gentile, pp. 150-60.

61. Ibid., pp. 151-52.

62. Information on the various drafts was found and made available by Canadian human rights researcher David Matas on a grant from the Canadian government’s Department of Foreign Affairs. See Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? pp. 9-10.

63. Ibid., p. 10. Matas’s source for this observation is the report of the Soviet-International Joint Commission on the Fate and Whereabouts of Raoul Wallenberg, Sept. 5, 1990, particularly Principal Findings one and two.

64. Ibid., p. 9.

65. The Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States, Press Release, Dec. 4, 1991, p. 1.

66. Ibid., p. 2.

67. Ibid., p. 3.

68. Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? p. 11.

69. Birstein, Secret Cell Number Seven, pp. 7-11.

70. Bierman, Righteous Gentile, pp. 158-65.

71. Details appeared in an article in the Swedish paper Svenska Dagbladet, June 2, 1993. The article was translated by Jacob Wallenberg and made available to the author by the Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States. The headline in English translation reads: "Soviet Ordered Disclaimer."

72. Makinen, Search for Raoul Wallenberg, p. 12; Dagens Nyheter, May 11, 1977; and The Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States, Press Release, Dec. 4, 1991.

73. Lester and Werbell, "Lost Hero of the Holocaust," pp. 134-35; Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? p. 27.

74. Schmemann, "Soviet Files Show K.G.B. Cover-up."

75. Lester and Werbell, "Lost Hero of the Holocaust," p. 136; Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 148.

76. Bierman, Righteous Gentile, pp. 190-92. The general outline of the episode was confirmed in the author’s interview with Thomas Pickering on Apr. 24, 1997. Pickering, at the time, was acting under secretary of state. Also see William Korey, "Perspective on Raoul Wallenberg: Honor This Hero by Getting the Truth About His Fate," Los Angeles Times, July 4, 1994 (Commentary Section, B7).

77. Author’s interview with Thomas Pickering, Oct. 15, 1999, conducted by telephone. A biographer of Wallenberg stated that it was a panel of five State Department officers who prepared the memorandum; see Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 165. Pickering did not recall any such panel. Rosenfeld drew his information from material acquired by a Swedish radio reporter.

78. Henry Kissinger, Years of Upheaval (Boston: Little, Brown, 1982); and Henry Kissinger, Years of Renewal (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999).

79. Interview with Pickering, Oct. 15, 1999. In that interview, he told the author at the very end: "Thank you for continuing to pursue this."

80. Bierman, Righteous Gentile, p. 197; and Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 38.

81. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. 38.

82. William Korey, The Promises We Keep: Human Rights, The Helsinki Process and American Foreign Policy (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993), p. 270.

83. Letter from Richard Schifter to the author, Sept. 21, 1994. He noted that general guidelines on human rights issues were established by Secretary of State George Shultz. On Jan. 17, 1984, a statement of Shultz was publicly read by U.S. ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick. He said: "The Kremlin has a moral obligation to put to rest, once and for all, the questions that continue to arise about Raoul Wallenberg." He went on to call for "a full accounting" of his fate. See Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. xxv.

84. Korey, Promises We Keep, p. 271.

85. Ibid.

86. Ibid.

87. William Korey, "Will Little Signs Add Up to a Real Soviet Thaw on the Wallenberg Case?" Los Angeles Times, Feb. 27, 1989.

88. Korey, Promises We Keep, p. 303.

89. Ibid.

90. Esther Fein, "Soviets Give Kin Wallenberg Papers," New York Times, Oct. 17, 1989; and David Remnick, "Wallenberg’s Papers Returned: Soviets Insist He Died in 1947," Washington Post, Oct. 17, 1989.

91. Birstein, Secret Cell Number Seven, p. 4.

92. Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? p. 13.

93. Helen Davis, "New Optimism on Fate of Wallenberg," Jewish Week (New York), Oct. 20, 1989; Remnick, "Wallenberg’s Papers Re-turned."

94. Andrei Sakharov, Memoirs (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990), p. 531.

95. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, pp. xxx - xxxi ; Bill Keller, "Soviets Open Prisons and Records to Inquiry on Wallenberg’s Fate," New York Times, Aug. 28, 1990.

96. Rosenfeld. Raoul Wallenberg, p. xxx.

97. Makinen, Search for Raoul Wallenberg, p. 8.; Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. xxx. This appeared in a summary of the commission’s findings on Sept. 9, 1990.

98. Rosenfeld, Raoul Wallenberg, p. xxxi.

99. Birstein, Secret Cell Number Seven, pp. 7-9.

100. Ibid., p. 11.

101. Tass, Apr. 24, 1991. The headline read: "Meeting with Swedish Ambassador in Moscow."

102. Schmemann, "Soviet Files Show K.G.B. Cover-up."

103. "Statement by Ambassador Henrik Amneus of the Swedish Delegation to the Moscow CSCE Meeting," Sept. 16, 1991.

104. "Statement by Ambassador Sam Wise of the U.S. Delegation to the Moscow CSCE Meeting," Oct. 2, 1991.

105. Sobesednik, no. 39, 1991. For background, see Vera Tolz, "Access to KGB and CPSU Archives in Russia," RFE/RL Research Report, no. 16 (Apr. 17, 1992): 1-7.

106. Jewish Week (New York), Apr. 3-9, 1992, citing the Jewish Telegraphic Agency.

107. Ella Maksimova, "Vallenberg Mertv: K Sozhalyeniyu Dokazatel’stv Dostatochno," Izvestiya, June 3, 1995, p. 5.

108. Letter by Jacob Wallenberg, vice chairman of the Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States, to the editor of the London Evening Standard, June 4, 1993, made available to the author by the Wallenberg Committee. The Swedish newspaper in which the story appears was Svenska Dagbladet and the Danish organ was Berlingske Tidende.

109. Ibid. A similar interpretation was given to the author by Catherine Fitzpatrick, who has been a professional translator of major Russian books and is now director of the International League for Human Rights. In her linguistic judgment, "liquidation" in the context of the quote refers to the case, not the person of Wallenberg.

110. The full text is in the article by Ella Maksimova in Izvevstiya, June 3, 1993.

111. Jacob Wallenberg letter to the editor of the London Evening Standard, June 4, 1993. On July 7, 1947, Vyshinsky wrote to Abakumov asking where Wallenberg was taken under the protection of the Soviet military, to what places he was subsequently moved, whether there was fighting or bombing in the area, whether he had freedom of movement, and whether he had been in touch with members of the Swedish legation. Answers to these queries were "important" so that he (Vyshinsky) would be able to figure out a reply to the questions posed by the Swedish government. See Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? p. 8.

112. Pavel Sudoplatov and Anatoli Sudoplatov with Jerrold L. and Leona P. Schecter, Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness—A Soviet Spymaster (Boston: Little, Brown, 1994). The chapter was entitled "Raoul Wallenberg, Lab X, and Other Special Tasks," pp. 265-84.

113. Thomas Powers, "Were the Atomic Scientists Spies?" The New York Review of Books, June 9, 1994, pp. 10-17; George Kennan, "In Defense of Oppenheimer," ibid., June 23, 1994, p. 8; Walter Laqueur, "Red Herrings," The New Republic, June 6, 1994, pp. 38-41. Sudoplatov’s views on Wallenberg did find favor with Kati Marton, a biographer of the Swedish diplomat. See Kati Marton, "The Liquidation of Raoul Wallenberg: At Last, the True Story Is Out," Washington Post, Jan. 22, 1995; and "Afterword" in her book, Wallenberg, pp. 219-25.

114. Robert Conquest, "Foreword," in Sudoplatov, Special Tasks, pp. xi - xii.

115. Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? pp. 15-17, 29.

116. Internet communication from David Matas to the author, September 1998. The computerized version is in the author’s possession.

117. Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? p. 16.

118. Ibid., p. 60. Ambassador Jan Lundvik, coordinator of the Swedish Foreign Ministry’s efforts within the Working Group, informed the author by telephone on Nov. 9, 1999, that the commission plans to complete all its field work by spring 2000, and that each of the Working Groups is expected to prepare its final report by the end of the year.

119. New York Times, Sept. 5, 1993.

120. Louisa Vinton, "The Katyn Documents: Politics and History," RFE/RL Research Report 2:4 (January 1993): 19-30; and Vera Tolz, "The Katyn Documents and the CPSU Hearings," ibid., 1:44 (Nov. 6, 1992): 27-33. Also, see New York Times, Apr. 14, 1990.

121. "The Angel Was a Spy. New Evidence: Sweden’s Raoul Wallenberg was a U.S. Espionage Asset," U.S. News and World Report, May 13, 1996, p. 51. Prof. Marvin Makinen refers to the Kohl intervention in his The Search for Raoul Wallenberg, p. 6. Makinen adds that Moscow’s October 1989 invitation to the half sister and half brother of Wallenberg, along with Anger, to come to the Soviet capital, resulted "particularly from the insistence of Chancellor Kohl."

122. Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? p. 62.

123. Ibid.

124. Ibid., pp. 62-63.

125. "Canada to Contribute to Research on Raoul Wallenberg," News Release, Canada Department of Foreign Affairs, Sept. 5, 1996.

126. Matas, What Happened to Raoul Wallenberg? p. 3.

127. Michael Baadke, "U.S. Stamp for Wallenberg in 1997," Linn’s Stamp News, May 20, 1996, p. 2; "Stamp of Approval," U.S. News and World Report, May 13, 1996, p. 28.

128. "World Briefing," New York Times, Nov. 19, 1998. The item is taken from an Associated Press story.

129. Todd Purdum, "Clinton Promises Full Effort to Account for M.I.A.’s," New York Times, May 30, 1995.

130. William Korey, "A Stamp for an Unanswered Letter," Hadassah Magazine, January 1997, p. 11.

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